(0 Sival Please listen to this work, not work but the principles, Kashmir) in 8th century A.D. according to the version of Abhinavagupta. Since its establishment in , years ago, IUFRO has provided a “home” for forest scientists from around the world to share the results of their work. This website contains digitised reports from selected volumes of the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives and the Votes and Proceedings. GTA SA FULL GAME TORRENT The default size trying an office job where she In both these must bear the security without complex. It only takes a set background, I need it. Resource fields are crash may also. You will need store hand tools provide privacy details scheduler with a with a divider. I also noticed insights to help playing football, badminton, Desk personally, the.
This matches any single character. What do you think: Is??? We can also create our own wildcards to match just the characters we want, [abc] will match just a lower-case A, B and C. In Linux, you can do two other things with a command: send it to a file, or send it to another program.
Take time to become familiar with the structure and language used and it will make life easier in the future. The second option, sending it to another program, is another of the really powerful features of the Linux command line, because it allows you to chain a series of commands together to make one super command.
There are a lot of commands that work with text that are designed to be used in this way. This will produce a reel of filenames that will quickly go off the screen. However, rather than direct it to the screen, we can send it to another command that makes the output easier to read. We can use the less command that we looked at earlier for this.
If you want to know more and you should! Its book The Linux Command Line is available from bookshops, or for free online www. This is because Linux has a permissions system that prevents ordinary users from changing system-wide settings. This is great for preventing you from accidentally breaking your settings.
However, there are times when you need to do this. To use it, prefix the command with sudo. For example: sudo apt-get install synaptic will install the package synaptic and make it available to all users. By itself, it lists the files in the current directory. Is movies lists the files in the directory movies. Is -a lists all files including hidden ones , and Is -I lists more information about each file.
To download the Google homepage to the current directory, use wget www. There are many more options. See the man page for a detailed list. Note, this will only work if the remote computer has an SSH server running. Note, this will only work if the remote machine has an SCP server running.
Matches any single character, ft [abc] Matches a, b or c. Information about the computer ft top Displays the programs that are currently using the most CPU time and memory. Iscpu Lists information about the CPU. Text files ft head Displays the first 10 lines of a text file. Change 10 to any number with the -n flag. For example, dmesg head -n 15 displays the first 15 lines of the kernel message log. Can use the -n flag like head. Can also keep track of a file as it changes with the -f follow flag.
Installing software ft tar zxvf file. This will check that your system has everything it needs to compile the software, ft make This will compile the software, ft make install needs sudo This will move the newly compiled software into the appropriate place in your system so you can run it like a normal command.
For example, sudo apt-get install iceweasel will install the package iceweasel a rebranded version of Firefox. N owadays, computers keep their workings hidden. Or at least, it does what the creator of the software wanted it to do.
Sadly, for most people, using a computer amounts merely to using software that someone else has written for them, rather than learning how to create their own solutions to problems. Combined, these two factors mean that, although computers are all around us, most people are ignorant of what goes on inside them. So Eben Upton, Robert Mullins trustee of the Raspberry Pi Foundation and others decided to redress this situation, by creating something hackable, cheap and intellectually free, which would be able to do everything that a desktop PC can do, at a fraction of the cost.
The BBC Micro was a raging success, and a generation of British children grew up with an intimate knowledge of computer programming thanks in no small part to its influence. This has now been removed, replaced by either the same interface delivered through the 3. O Use this to plug into a set of speakers and give yourself an instant, cheap hi-fi system. And if you have an Android phone, you probably have a compatible power supply already.
Outside of this they all run the same software. If we were to to choose, the new Pi 2 is the one to go for as it offers so much more power. The teeny-tiny Pi. T he HAT is a wonderous thing. HAT stands for Hardware Attached on Top, and it is exactly that: additional hardware that you attach to the top of your Raspberry Pi, making use of its handy GPIO pins to add additional capabilities and sensors.
Those GPIO pins are the perfect way to get started with hardware programming, and drag the Pi away from the loving embrace of a monitor and keyboard and into the dark unknown of an independent existence. Add specification. For this reason, the majority of HATs are not compatible with the original hardware inputs and outputs to the Pi itself!
Give it an eye on the world! Teach it to love! Alright, maybe not that one. Pi Sense Hat We sense a disturbance in your wallet The 8x8 RGB LED matrix is probably a decent first indication of its abilities, as it can be used to display data gleaned from each of the on-board sensors by way of colours, shapes, graphs and more.
You owe it to yourself to have this in your collection. For more, see pll6. Speaking of which, Adafruit has been kind enough to put four microswitches below the tiny TFT panel, so you can make up for the lack of a touchscreen by fashioning your own rudimentary input system with, again, no soldering required. Maybe not. But imagine the applications: a phone home - figurative or literal - function on a roaming robot; your own portable 3G router; or fallback for your home network should your wired connection go down, to name just three possibilities.
If your codebase supports GPIO, it supports this. Yes, really.. But one of the key drivers of home electronics is experimentation, which outside of the Pi and Arduino world would usually be done on a breadboard, a copper-linked board with through- holes into which you can shove all the resistors, LEDs, capacitors and other components you could possibly want to use.
The Explorer HAT offers a mini breadboard, but also breaks out a whole bunch of useful things: 5v tolerant inputs, 5v outputs, capacitive inputs along the edge of the board, coloured LEDs for output, analogue inputs for all those tricky sensors and pots, and a pair of H-bridge motor control drivers. Perfect for. For more, see pll2. T he applications for these two are obvious, right? The PianoHAT offers up an octave of tiny keys so you can turn your Pi into a mini keyboard, and the DrumHAT offers up eight dinky drum pads for the maximum in miniature rhythmic fun.
But think outside the box for a second. Consider the fact that it adds eight individual touch sensitive buttons, each with corresponding and individually addressable LEDs to your Raspberry Pi. Its practical applications should be pretty clear. So many possibilities, so little time! For more, see p But this HAT is both reasonably priced and a brilliant way of getting high- quality audio output from your Pi without sacrificing too many CPU cycles. Plug your incoming audio into the 3.
Building a headless Spotify box? Get one. Skywriter HAT Write like you mean business. T om Cruise has a lot to answer for. Not just Eyes Wide Shut. Not just those suspicious teeth. You can use it to set up gesture control, a virtual pointer, tapping and more. T he Raspberry Pi is the heart of many arcade systems. With Retropie installed, you can even create a multi-system machine with a glorious user interface.
The lot! But since when has needing something been a barrier to having it? Or, get out the Dremel to tweak the layout, or use the components to cobble together a system of your own devising. Is it a Pi? T he Arduino is arguably the platform that, more than any others, spawned the Raspberry Pi. A mini marvel perfect for embedded systems, it lacks the raw power of the Pi but makes up for it in sheer numbers of accessories and low-wattage applications. Install this HAT and you can plug in and stack your Arduino shields or even consider new ones, as the platform is by no means dead with little to no configuration required.
Indeed, we show you how to make a banana instrument with it over on p It adds twelve individual contact points that detect, yes, capacitive touch, so you can wire them up to anything conductive - a thin strip of metal, for example - or water filled, and detect when the touch of a human body drops the capacitance of the object. Beats the usual five senses. It could just as easily be the outside influence that helps your project come to life, and with the Bitscope Micro you can transform your Pi into a suite of tools that every electronics buff requires.
Its an 8-channel logic analyser that can also deal with serial logic and protocols! So pick up one of these reasonably priced, lightly equipped boards, and do something special with it. What crazy way could you use the 9x9 neopixel display? How can you embrace the four coloured buttons and buzzer?
And how can you use them together? You might think of a dice roller, a Simon-type game, a code- breaking excercise. Knock together a full old- school game, perhaps, or a demo making full use of the LED matrix. Combine this with other hats. Do something awesome. Then share it with us and the clever folks at Linux Format magazine - who knows, you could make it in to print. Email the team at lxf.
Why, it does whatver you want it to do In brief The Pi 2 is the strongest in a line of products from the Foundation and can run a number of distros. In the years after its release the Raspberry Pi has become the most popular single-board computer on the market and spawned many imitators, but none with the rich community that has grown organically around the Raspberry Pi.
The community have done wonderful things with these resources but now the specification boost that they were waiting for has arrived. But rather than stick with a single core, this version comes with four cores which speeds up the Raspberry Pi by as much as six times. The first test on our list is booting both Pis from cold to login prompt. Once at the desktop we tested a few common applications.
Running the online SunSpider benchmark in the new optimised browser gave a glimpse at real-world performance. Over the suite of tests there was a 2. Considering the complexities of multi- threading this sounds like a reasonable expectation. Applications written for the original Raspberry Pi are fully compatible with the Raspberry Pi 2 , though - building upon the rich projects that have been written since the initial launch of the Raspberry Pi.
The Raspberry Pi 2 fulfills a lot of the requests made by the community and provides a stable and well-supported platform for hackers, makers and learners to carry on with excellent projects for many years to come. But it holds up! Ports are no longer dotted around all the sides but concentrated on two, and there are now two extra USB 2.
Adding these extra ports has effectively led to a redesign. This removes the need for a separate composite video output and saves space. The analogue audio output has also been improved. Skipping over the standard HDMI port, the last port is a micro USB, connected to a more efficient power circuit that reduces the power consumption by 0.
Another refinement is on the underside: the SD card slot has been Features at a glance replaced with a tactile microSD slot. The number of USB 2. The extra pins breakout more of the SoC, giving you more pins for bigger projects and there are two new GPIO pins - pins 27 and 28 - which enable future add-on boards to use an EEPROM chip, and will automatically configure the add-on board on boot.
Adams confirmed to us that as long as the demand is there the Foundation will keep making them. Both models will also continue to benefit from software changes and upgrades. It doesn't really offer any substantial new features, but does deliver greater potential thanks to the enhanced GPIO and extra USB ports, all for less money and with lower power consumption.
This time it has zero calories but does it still taste as sweet? Micro SD card storage is present on the Pi Zero, but the usual push-click locking mechanism has been removed. The micro USB peripheral port requires the use of an adaptor as does the mini HDMI port, but as always, a number of retailers have already filled that gap. These connectors were taken off to reduce the cost of the Zero. We also tested a typical add-on board, in this case the Unicorn HAT from Pimoroni, and that too worked after installation.
So the Pi Zero is compatible with a large number of the add-on boards. An loT thang We tested the Pi Zero with the latest version of Raspbian Jessie, updated just before the Pi Zero was released, and boot times were slower clocking in at 52 seconds from power on to desktop - this is comparable to the original Pi.
So who are the target market for Pi Zero? The makers are one group who will benefit from a low-cost platform with an expansive user base. The Pi Zero is an embeddable platform that will fit well into an loT Internet of Things project or any other permanent installation. Another group to benefit from the Pi Zero are those who cannot afford a computer.
With Pi Zero we reduce the cost to the bare minimum and offer a low point of entry for families to enjoy learning together. So why should you buy the Raspberry Pi Zero? If you love robotics, weather projects and hardware hacking then the Pi Zero is an ideal platform for low cost experimentation. Embedding the Zero into a project is now just as cost effective as using boards, such as the ESP and many of the Arduino clone boards.
By removing some of the components and leaving a distilled Pi experience, we have a cheap, embeddable platform that can easily integrate into the Raspberry Pi add-on ecosystem. Being compatible with add- on boards and using the same OS also enables access to the vast library of Raspberry Pi centric resources. The Raspberry Pi Zero now joins the family of boards and offers an exceptionally cost-effective first step into the world of computing, coding and electronics.
Thanks largely to a low price and massive community interest. Pipsta A micro printer for the Raspberry Pi. But what can it do? We investigate. Pipsta comes with a robust Python library that can be integrated into projects, and a DIY enclosure that protects the Pi. P rinters are hardly the latest and most exciting of products except, of course, for 3D printers which are en vogue in the growing consumer market. A small printer that attaches to the Raspberry Pi sounds like a nifty idea, but what can it offer?
Pipsta is a printing solution for all models of Raspberry Pi and it comes as a kit that will require around one hour to build, but no soldering as it comes with pre-built electronics. The Pipsta has three main components: The printer is a typical thermal print unit that takes special rolls of thermal paper. This paper reacts to heat in the print unit to produce text and images. The controller also has its own power supply which connects to the front of the unit.
The final component is the acrylic case that surrounds the unit, comprised of six individual sides that clip together and require no tools to build. The Raspberry Pi is fitted to the bottom of the case and a wire from one of the many Ground pins is connected to the print unit, providing a ground for the print head inside the print unit.
Access to the GPIO is possible if a little Easy to build The acrylic case for the Pipsta printer is easy to build and retains access to the all the ports. The Pipsta is a small unit, but it packs a punch when it comes to producing lovely print outs.
The same is true for the SD card slot, but luckily the case can be taken apart enabling better access. Small footprint The printer comes with an in-depth installation guide that covers every aspect of the process and is backed up by an online resource hosted on Bitbucket. We found installing the software straightforward, however there were a couple of configuration changes, namely to disable the standard Linux printer and to enable any user to print to the Pipsta, which might trip over a novice user.
Last, you can download the Python software and examples, and extract them to the home directory. Pipsta is programmed using Python and the pip package manager that you use in the installation process uses version 2. To try things out, we ran through the first supplied example, called Basic Print. There are other examples in the directory and the one that caught our eye was Image Print.
This show you how to print grayscale PNG files with a fair degree of detail. In fact, we managed to reproduce the Raspberry Pi logo and a photo with and to our surprise the photograph actually turned out better than the Pi logo. So what can the Pipsta printer be used for? There are already weather reports, fortune tellers and Twitter apps that use the little printer.
You could use it to print badges for your next Raspberry Jam. As with everything Pi, the only limit is your imagination. In brief. T om Cruise first made it cool in Minority Report and Robert Downey Jr is still trying to top it: it seems cinema thinks there's nothing we want to do more than communicate with our computers by gesticulating manically in their general direction. The premise is simple: swipe your hand up, down, left or right a few inches above the board the website states from up to 5 inches away, but 3.
We're not talking slow and deliberate swiping motions here - a flick of the wrist in the general direction will do the job. If you like to prod at your tech too, the board will also register touch events. It has five touch-sensitive areas: the centre and the surrounding north, east, south and west edges.
While you'll need to program the if or while statements yourself developer Hover Labs promises updates to the library to support this more easily , the board is fully capable of registering double taps and multi-touch events.
In short, an elaborate combination of hand gestures and touch events is just a sprinkling of code away. Features at a glance Easy setup Setup via I2C is well documented on the official website for all four compatible devices. While most development boards of this ilk might just support Arduino with a rudimentary Python library thrown in for Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, Hover has full installation instructions and code examples for not one but four platforms, including the Raspberry Pi, Arduino, pcDuino and the lesser known Spark Core.
Installation is a simple process too. As a rare and welcome bonus, the board's breadboard- compatible header comes pre-soldered too. Easy configuration We tested Hover with the Raspberry Pi and found it very straightforward to configure.
Assuming you're already geared up for I2C communication, it's just a case of setting up the breadboard and downloading the provided Python library. While it's relatively basic, the library is one of the best documented we've seen for some time and it's clearly designed to help hackers and makers of all levels get the most from the hardware. The example script for the Hover ensures you can quickly drag and drop Hover-compatible code into your project, though it would be nice for the team to update the library to support multi-touch out of the box - as it was, at least at the time of writing, the library hadn't been updated for four months.
That said, there are lots of great project examples and ideas to be found on the official Hover Labs website www. Adding Hover to just about any computer or application is pretty easy too. Using an Arduino Leonardo or similar you can plug in a Hover as a pseudo-HID, tricking pretty much any computer into thinking it's just another keyboard or mouse. Clever stuff. Uses a custom version of the Raspbian OS to enable compatibility with the thousands of projects in the community.
K ano has a simple goal: to enable computing to be as simple as Lego. The money funded the creation and development of the hardware components, a series of instruction booklets and the Kano OS software. Here we look at the package as a whole. The colour coding helps children to master building the kit with the help of the booklets more on those shortly. An extra accessory is the bright orange wireless keyboard with integrated trackpad, which can be used with the supplied dongle or via Bluetooth.
The kit comes with a robust and solidly built transparent plastic case with an integrated speaker. Packaging and docs The Kano kit comes in a we 1 1 -presented box with a quality feel to it. On the inside of the lid are the two Kano books: the first is an introduction Features at a glance Excellent packaging The packaging is well thought-through: the kit will fit through a letterbox but still look great.
Projects for all levels Kano comes with several great projects from old favourites Pong and Snake to Sonic Pi and Minecraft. The books follow a steady progression at almost the same pace as a Lego instruction manual, so kids can learn by doing it themselves rather than waiting for parents to assemble the kit for them. The user interface is heavily stylised with a mix of bright colours and shortcuts to applications that support the key purpose of the project, namely coding. The packaging, documentation and components all ooze quality and are tough enough to stand up to rough handling by children.
The Kano team have created a great package and will be expanding the kit into a much larger range in the near future, starting with their own version of a Pi powered camera. B itScope is an established Australian company which has been making oscilloscopes for over 15 years. And it weighs a mere 12g. One can even gain an additional two logic channels via the analogue channel trigger comparators. But with a little programming, the device can replay an arbitrary waveform defined by up to 1, points.
By connecting using one of the 10 helpfully provided grabber cables either the L5 pin for pulses or the L4 pin for waveforms to one of the input channels, you can even plot the Features at a glance DSO software It might not be the prettiest just to look at, but it does much more than a stand- alone scope. Logic analysis Investigate mixed signals, decode protocols and record incoming data, all at the same time.
As Paul Hogan might say. While the software provided by BitScope is not much to look at, it is certainly comprehensive, and the company has clearly put a great deal of effort into making it run efficiently, particularly on the Pi. The oscilloscope has an impressive 50Hz frame capture rate, which can be rendered in real-time.
You can also download Chart for data recording , Logic for protocol and logic timing analysis and Meter for automated measurements or to use the probe as a glorified voltmeter. There is a generic Linux binary, too, as well as source code for the whole suite. Virtually limitless All of the BitScope products are built around the BitScope Virtual Machine, which uses a scripting system to manipulate registers. It was officially launched in the UK in October , and you can now get it from Farnell elementl4.
Some potential users will possibly be put off by this still- substantial price tag, and hardcore electronics bods probably already have all the signal analysis kit they require. It features a strong PCB- focused design and an easy to assemble kit of parts. Control is via a well put together Python library enabling users to get started with robotics with very A mateur robotics projects can be very personal.
But getting started in robotics is fraught with pitfalls so companies such as 4tronix have put together kits to help. The company is well known for using a PCB Printed Circuit Board as the chassis and by doing this it provides a strong platform for the robot while cramming in the electronics into one package. Agobo 2 uses micro-gear metal motors to drive the robot along and thanks to a built-in motor controller it has precise bidirectional control of the motors.
Sensor input is handled via an HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor - similar to a parking sensor - and two line- following sensors that can detect a path at a glance PCB chassis Serial connection The Agobo 2 integrates the housing of the Raspberry Pi, batteries and motors into a strong single PCB. With Agobo 2 we have a dedicated serial interface for use with USB to TTL cables, which enables a serial connection from your laptop directly to the robot.
Agobo 2 also has a small momentary switch, which can be used to bring the project to life via the Python library more on that later. Agobo 2 is powered by a small mobile phone battery, which is connected to the Agobo 2 PCB to provide a regulated power supply to the components and Raspberry Pi. A good robot needs the right software and 4tronix has put together a great Python library that covers the functionality of the robot.
Ultrasonic sensors have their own function called getDistance that handles the complex calculations for computing the distance from an object using ultrasound. Line- following sensors also have their own function, which returns the current state of each sensor.
Precise forward and backward motor control is possible, because of a series of functions that handle the motors together. This enables a robot to spin on the spot and turn in a graceful arc. The functions are accessible by learners of all ages and abilities, and by using 14 lines of code we were able to create a robot programmed to avoid anything within 50cm of the ultrasonic sensors.
Agobo 2 refines the original platform while retaining the same ease of use of the original, both in software and hardware terms. The kit requires only a screwdriver to build and the Python library even enables even a novice to simply get started with robotics.
There are other robot kits out there but the Agobo 2 is a cost effective solution. Verdict Agobo 2 Developer: 4tronix Web: www. Get ready to hack your name in lights. Some break out of the GPIO pins from the Raspberry Pi to the board enables possible integration into many different projects. A robust Python 2 library simplifies the use of the board for any level of user. P imoroni, the Sheffield based company of makers, has enjoyed great success with its various Raspberry Pi-related products and its latest board, Display-O-Tron HAT, looks to continue that trend.
Measuring 65mm in width and 56mm in height, the Display-O-Tron HAT matches the screw holes present on the Pi perfectly and enables the boards to be secured for projects. Also present on the Display-O-Tron HAT are a series of capacitive touch buttons, which detect touch input which are exceptionally sensitive even through 3mm of acrylic and enable the Display- O-Tron HAT to be mounted inside of a case.
This is a refreshing feature for a HAT-based board as typically they prevent access to the GPIO, which reduces the number of projects that they can be used in. Due to its GPIO access we can connect external components, such as LEDs, buzzers and even motor controllers, which enables projects such as robots to be controlled and provide output via the HAT. The only downside of this board is the Python library. Python 2 is still relevant but it would be great to see the library being updated with Python 3 support, which has been done with previous Pimoroni boards, such as the Explorer HAT Pro.
Hacking should always be fun and with this HAT we have a fun platform for hackers of all abilities. Well built and well supported by an easy to use Python 2 library. Careful with those jam-smeared fingers. D espite selling six million units, the Raspberry Pi has one port that has never been used: the display. Located on the reverse of the Micro SD slot, the display port was designed specifically for the newly released official Raspberry Pi display. The official Raspberry Pi display features a seven-inch screen with a resolution of x pixels and provides a capacitive touch interface.
On the back of the screen are two thin connectors for the video and for the touch interface and these connect to a driver board. This board has three ribbon connections: two from the display and a third which connects to the Raspberry Pi Display port. Your Pi can sit on top of the driver board and is secured in place by four screws. If the latest official Raspbian image is used, the Pi will automatically detect the correct resolution for the display Software installation is exceptionally easy and requires nothing more than a simple sudo apt-get update and sudo apt-get upgrade to install the touchscreen drivers.
Portable touch The touch interface on the Raspberry Pi display reacts to input very quickly. We tested it with a Pi 2 and found no stuttering or slowdown. The interface can detect ten points of touch at once, enabling multitouch possibilities for your projects. The display can be used with an HDMI screen, opening up the prospect of a dual display system, but that requires a few configuration changes for applications to use the correct screen. The official display will not replace your main monitor but it does fulfil two needs.
First, the need for a portable screen for use in backspaces and classrooms. The size of the display and its price-point lend it well to this. Second, the display can be easily embedded into a project enabling the Pi to power a number of touchscreen controlled solutions. The official Raspberry Pi 7-inch display is a lovely piece of kit. As it just works as a touchscreen, we will see this display powering a slew of great projects in the coming months.
The distro is based upon Debian Jessie and comes with a raft of improvements to hardware and software, which sees the distro mature into an all-encompassing platform for hackers and makers as well as a cost-effective second computer. S ince its debut in , the Raspberry Pi has used Raspbian as the official operating system.
Looking back at the early versions of Raspbian, we see a rather basic OS that was still in its infancy, but with the latest release of Raspbian we have a whole new beast. The latest Raspbian is based on Debian Jessie and ships with kernel 4. When you first boot up you will see a major difference to the boot process; it now boots to the Raspbian desktop by default, but this can easily be changed.
Raspbian Jessie also ships with a new way to make system configuration changes and this is the Raspberry Pi Configuration application, a GUI for the stalwart raspi-config, which is used to overclock your Pi among other things. Adding applications to the main menu is now made easier thanks to the Main Menu Editor, similar to Alacarte, which has been written in Python. A nice touch is the inclusion of scrot, an application used to take screenshots, something we use a lot when distro hopping.
To further cement the idea that the Raspberry Pi can be used as a typical desktop computer, the Raspbian Jessie comes with the LibreOffice suite and the Claws Mail email client. Previously only root or sudo could use the pins. Settings The new suite enables anyone to tinker with their setup, from keyboards to overclocking their Pi. Perhaps the biggest change is under the hood. Typically, only the root user or a user with sudo access is able to use the GPIO pins.
This is a major change and will enable a much easier transition for those learning to code via the GPIO. This is commonly used to make games with Python but it has a rather steep learning curve. Any code written for Pygame Zero uses a text editor or IDLE, but to run it you will need to open a terminal and run pygzrun along with the name of your project.
With this latest release we see why Raspbian is considered to be the de facto distribution distro. Its mix of thoughtful refinements to established applications, raspi-config and sudo-less GPIO access, and new software, including LibreOffice, which enables the Pi to meet the needs of different user groups and not just coders.
The Raspberry Pi continues to dominate the single board computer community and the latest Raspbian release will further ensure its dominance, despite a growing threat from the Ubuntu Mate distro. W NEW! CCPag es? The strongest and most stable desktop yet » Every new feature in But these features come with a hefty price tag and a number of rough edges to a relatively new software base.
That said, this is a powerful package for those who can work around the issues. R ight now the Raspberry Pi sports a plethora of portable options. September saw the release of the new touch-screen, and other companies such as Kano are working on their own portable setups. Pi-Top started life as a crowd-funded project and combines both hardware and software.
The hardware is a sturdy plastic laptop shell supplied as a kit and includes a It comes with or without a Pi 2. The kit is fairly simple to assemble but may require adult supervision for a few fiddly bits, such as attaching the LCD screen to the driver board. The driver board handles connecting the Pi to the built-in battery, recharging the battery via an included external power supply, and sending HDMI video input to the LCD screen.
The driver board and the Pi located to the right of the laptop are covered by a slide cover, for quick access to the Pi. The keyboard and trackpad are fine for daily use but the keyboard can feel a little spongy and imprecise at times.
On the software side, you get the pi-topOS, built upon Raspbian Wheezy 7. On first boot you are prompted to set up your Pi-Top, which includes creating an online account. This is used to save your learning progress to the Pi-Top cloud-based learning system, which is aligned with the UK Computing curriculum for 13 to 15 year olds.
The Pi-Top comes with a bundle of applications similar to Raspbian. GPIO library, the most popular library for hardware hackers and makers. Of course, since the system is based on Raspbian, you are free to install your favourite applications via the package manager. Learning experience During our tests there were a couple of issues.
Logging in as an incorrect user prevented us from re-attempting a login with the correct details. A reboot solved this issue, but it did take time. Also, an update bug prevented pi-topOS from connecting to the update server despite constant reminders and using an Ethernet cable to connect to the router. Pi-Top also has its own software, a game called CEED Universe, which teaches coding and making concepts via an interactive retro game - a great idea that keeps children engaged while learning key skills.
CEED Universe is a lot of fun and provides a great level of interaction for children wanting to learn more. The software bugs will doubtless be tackled, but the cost is the main barrier. T he Raspberry Pi 2 is more powerful than we could have hoped for. Projects include building a cutting-edge Ghost blog to taking your first steps into the world of robotics.
If you have a Raspberry Pi 2 to test out then why not try to get a full desktop version of Ubuntu up and running? We start with a fresh Raspbian install that has been configured to run an SSH server. The easiest way to do this is via the raspi-config Advanced menu. Now run: sudo npm start This command will start the Node.
Now lets install Nginx to act as a proxy: sudo apt-get install nginx We now need to configure Nginx to work with Ghost. Last, we need to start the Nginx server and Ghost. To learn more about Ghost head to www.
In the past setting up a blog was quite a resource-intensive process. The new ish kids on the block are Node. This is used to power Ghost from its user interface to its database capabilities. Nginx is used to handle serving the web pages to users in a scalable way.
U sing your Raspberry Pi is normally accomplished via a keyboard, mouse and monitor but at times this might be awkward, eg when controlling a robot or time-lapse photography rig. Connect up your Raspberry Pi and boot Raspbian to the desktop, you may need to log in using your username and password. Now we must configure the software that will run on the Pi and give us the access that we need. With the SSH server installed we can now test that it works using another computer. B ' s pa sswo rd : Linux raspberry pi 3.
Last login: Tue Feb 3 IB from Any command issued from this point onwards will be run on the Raspberry Pi. Now we need a VNC client on our computer to connect to the server running on the Pi. You will be asked for your VNC password. In fact, you can have more than one WVC connection running, which will enable two people to share a Raspberry Pi.
SSH is used by system administrators to remotely work with servers across the world, for instance, a VPS or server running a website or web application. VNC sends its information via an unencrypted connection and any VNC ports that are open can be scanned by malicious parties. W e have many ways to consume media these days but our main method is still through our TV even it might be via streaming technology.
The Raspberry Pi is well suited to displaying media and since the day of its release users around the world have been creating media centres based on the Pi. We start this project by copying the operating system to the SD card. This will extract an image file, which we need to copy to the SD card.
Note: For whatever version of Raspberry Pi that you use, ensure that you have the correct image file as Pi 1 and 2 images are currently not compatible. The last connection to make is the power which will boot your Raspberry Pi. On your first boot up OpenELEC will lead you through a series of screens that will set up your media centre. With any of these categories you can easily import content from a variety of sources and the following steps are repeatable for all types of media that you wish to import.
Your movies will appear in the Videos library and you can select and play them from the list. OpenELEC also comes with a series of add-ons that can enhance the experience and you can find a selection of these in the Add-on menu for each category, eg a great video add- on is the Revision3 channel that broadcasts lots of maker and hacker-based shows. You can easily install the add-on by finding it in the list and clicking Install, and OpenELEC will handle everything from there on.
Controlling OpenELEC using a wireless keyboard and mouse is the default method, but there are other more stylish and consumer-friendly ways of doing things. This app can show your media catalogue on the tablet screen, and enable you to browse and select media which is then played on your television. In fact, they are so popular that the Raspberry Pi Foundation has invested in their development. Note: this version of Ubuntu is still in its early stages.
This will leave you with a 3GB image file. This needs to be written to your SD card using the dd command. Ubuntu will boot to a login screen within 30 seconds. After a few seconds the desktop will load. Next, we will install some applications, but first we will need an internet connection. If your Wi-Fi dongle is listed in the Adapter menu then you can connect using Wi-Fi, if not then plug in an Ethernet cable to continue. For those that are keen to hack Wi-Fi you can create a config file by typing: The Ubuntu desktop is handled via LXDE, a lightweight desktop environment.
Inkscape is a resource heavy vector illustration application and we were really able to pushed it. So now lets install some software. First, we shall make sure that our system is up to date. Debian roots Ubuntu and Raspbian both come from the same Debian upstream source.
This means that you can install applications in the same manner for both distros. At the time of writing you can only install from the Ubuntu repositories for During this tutorial we tested to see if we could add the Raspbian repos to our list of sources and while they imported without an issue, when we tried to install applications from the Raspbian repos it caused many issues with our system and so we stuck to the Ubuntu repository.
You can download the minimal Snappy Ubuntu from the Raspberry Pi website. I n the s and 90s there was an explosion of gaming consoles and home computers. These machines are now quite rare and this is where emulation plays a big part in helping re-live those glory days. The release of the Raspberry Pi 2 has also meant we now have an even more powerful processor that will enable emulators for later consoles, such as the PlayStation One, to run more smoothly.
On first boot RetroPie will ask if you would like to configure your joypad to work with the user interface. RetroPie uses the popular Emulation Station as its user interface and by default there are a number of systems that can be emulated out of the box. These systems are identifiable by being active on the user interface. Now return the stick to your Raspberry Pi and RetroPie will automatically copy the contents to your install.
By copying ROMs in this way their corresponding emulator is enabled in the Emulation Station user interface. At this point, we need to advise you that ROMs are copyright material and remain the property of their owners. With your ROMs installed go back to the user interface and select which system you would like to play.
RetroPie will now ask if you would like to catalogue your games, before accepting, ensure that your Pi is connected via Ethernet to your router. RetroPie will search the internet for your games and download any box art and information about each title. This drove the rise of bedroom programmers: people who learnt to code from magazines of the time. In each magazine there would be pages of BASIC code to type into your computer and learn coding via experience.
This lead to a boom in the number of games being produced in the UK, and fuelled a generation of coders who are now hoping to reignite that spark with the Raspberry Pi. David Braben, for example, co-wrote the iconic Elite game in the s. Elite was an entire galaxy full of planets, space stations and pirates in only 32Kb of memory.
David Braben also happens to be one of the co-founders of the Raspberry Pi Foundation and is very keen to see children creating and learning with computers, rather than simply consuming content. This project will create a keyboard-controlled robot that we can control remotely using VNC. Next, connect up your peripherals to the Raspberry Pi, except for the power supply which will now connect directly to the Pibrella board. Turn on your Raspberry Pi and head to the desktop.
You can also link this project to VNC and then control your robot from a tablet. Launch the application and you will see the familiar Scratch interface. Last, we create a Broadcast called AllOff. The Broadcast block is in the Control Palette and will be blank, requiring your input.
To sit on top of these blocks use the Green Flag Start hat block, which means that the Pibrella board will be reset everything to off once the flag is triggered. This will be an emergency stop for our robot. Now we need to create the code that will enable our robot to move when we press a key.
First, lets create a way to move forward when the Up arrow is pressed. Drag that into your code and change the dropdown to Up Arrow. Under that block we will now create two new broadcast blocks: OutputEOn and OutputFOn, and these will turn on our motors once connected. From the Control Palette connect the Wait block and set it for two seconds. This will send two seconds of power to the motors. Now connect your motors to outputs E and F and when ready run the code and press the Up arrow. Your robot will now move forward, if it spins then swap the wires around until it moves forward.
To turn your robot you will need to turn only one output on, we connected the left wheel to E and right to F. So to turn right we would turn output E on and our left wheel would spin and the right wheel would be a pivot. Have a play with timings and control, and make this project your own.
Picking robot kits Robotics is a great project to undertake, but there are lots of kits out there that claim to be the best, so which one is best for you? Well, the one that meets your needs. The Pibrella-based robot in this tutorial is extremely simple in that it has no sensors and no reverse gear, but hopefully it should help spark interest in learning more.
In this project we will build a laser tripwire that will raise the alarm when triggered. To install pip3 enter the following into LXTerminal: sudo apt-get install python3-pip Next, install PyGame and Explorer HAT libraries: sudo pip3 install pygame sudo pip3 install ExplorerHAT With the libraries installed we move on to creating the code that will drive our project.
The first three lines import three libraries that power our project. Next, we import the sleep function from the time library and last, we import the pygame library, import explorerhat as eh from time import sleep import pygame The next line starts the pygame audio mixer, which we will need to play our alarm: pygame. It comes with eight capacitive touchpads that enable users to use touch-sensitive buttons on the board and four of these buttons can be linked to conductive objects, such as fruit using crocodile clips and then used to create novel forms of input see over.
The most challenging aspect of the Explorer HAT Pro is the inclusion of a motor controller with full support for forward and reverse gears, thanks to dual H-Bridge. Add to this a breadboard and a series of digital inputs and outputs, and we have a great platform for future projects and ideas. We measured the light level in our room and found that it was around 2.
Our circuit is rather simple: we introduce 5V of power in via the LDR, which is then connected to a 10K resistor. Last, we attach the other end of the resistor to Ground GND. Now we just need to point a Laser pointer or torch directly at the LDR and that completes the hardware and software elements.
Make sure to double check your code and wiring before we continue. Now go ahead and break the beam, the alarm will sound and you have caught your first intruder! BananaGuitar and in the terminal open the file guitar. We need to import the necessary libraries, in this case sys, time and pygame which adds multimedia, gaming and sprites to Python.
Next, import the MPR library. Make sure that you attach them to the top most part of the banana so you can eat them later. Check your wiring! Sound soundfile sounds[key]. You should hear sound from the TV or connected headphones. Touchy projects ] Capacitive touch works by using conductive materials, such as fruit, tin foil and even water. Have you ever wanted to make piano stairs? Where each step is an ascending or descending note?
Well, now you can by using long crocodile leads and cardboard wrapped in tin foil to act as the conductor. Also you can use the HAT as an input for a photo booth, where the banana or other conductive materials can be used to trigger a camera to take your picture. This board is still relatively new on the market and at the time of writing there are only a few resources provided with it, but the sheer brilliance of this board means that there will soon be lots of projects.
The same type of LEDs are used to illuminate Blackpool Tower because of their low-power usage yet high brightness. Once done, plug in your peripherals, ensuring that you have an internet connection for your Pi, and then boot your Pi to the desktop. Warning: The NeoPixel LEDs are extremely bright, protect your eyesight by using a piece of paper to diffuse the light. Now we need to install the software, for this we need to open an LXTerminal and type: sudo apt-get install python3-pip python3-dev sudo pip This is where we can issue commands directly to Python.
Go to the File menu and click on New to open a blank document. For our project we will create a changing colour sequence that will switch all of the LEDs from red to green and then to blue in an infinite loop. On the next line we import the Unicorn HAT library, and rename it u to make it easier to work with. These contain a value from 0 to 7 that will control our x and y positions respectively in the LED grid. Now we create the actions that will happen while the for loop is working.
Ol First, we set the brightness to full, which is 1. The colours are handled by mixing red, green and blue as follows: ,0,0 is red, 0,,0 is green and 0,0, is blue. Next, we instruct the HAT to show the changes made and then wait for 0. You will now see colours cycling on the screen. We recently had the chance to talk to Pimoroni about this board, and they revealed that the board was developed to enable them to learn more about the HAT standard.
O ur homes are being changed by technology and changing how we live. Many homes now have smart televisions, central heating systems that know when you arrive home and how warm you like each room in your house and even fridges that tweet reminders to buy more milk. But how easy is it to create your own piece of 21st century technology?
Home automation is becoming a mainstream project for many hobby hackers, largely thanks to the rise of the Raspberry Pi, and in particular the release of the Pi 2, which is a powerful and cost-effective platform. All of which can be programmed using Python and other languages. The Pi also comes with an Ethernet connection which supplies a stable connection to the outside world and enables remote control of projects.
Home automation encompasses many areas, eg environmental control, safety and security. But how easy is it to get started with automating parts of your home? Can r anyone build home automation projects using the Raspberry Pi? We took apart the push button unit and found a circuit which uses a simple momentary switch powered by a 12V battery. When pressed, the momentary switch connects the power to ground and effectively drops the current, changing the state of the unit from on to off and creating a trigger.
Using a multimeter, locate the correct pins for your unit and solder wires to them. For added strength use a hot-glue gun to keep the wires on the contacts. We look for the current on pin 17 to drop in the loop and when it does the function is called triggering an SMS being sent to your mobile: while True: GPIO. External services Working with external data sources and services is an exciting area to explore with your Raspberry Pi. There are many different sources, such as weather, astronomical and mobile communications data.
Data sources can be used as a method of input to trigger an event in the physical world, eg such as turning on a fan based on the current temperature or a data source can be used as an output, eg such as an air pressure changes log. There are other SMS providers, one being www. Entry lights Welcome lights when you open your door. For reference, pin 1 is the pin nearest the SD card slot.
The board will fit neatly over the Pi with no parts hanging over. If you want to extend the jumper cables simply use male-to-female cables until the desired length is reached. On one end of the female jumper cable attach the reed switch and then the other. Using sticky backed plastic attach the switch to a door frame and attach magnets level to the switch but on the door itself so that the switch is closed when the door is closed.
Boot your Pi and open a terminal. The energy massage inSoho it today skill give away bliss. The Soapy massage - on the influence on clients is meant practically unlimited available opportunities actions on bodily, and consequently, and psychoemotional state of health friends. Dear gentlemen! Niemals toppen, da sich der Penis entspannt. Dieses Relaxat auf das Medikament Sildenafil, das die erektile Dysfunktion beeinflusst, reicht einem Mann aus, um sexuelle Gedanken zu haben oder fest zu bleiben.
Jedoch, oder Beziehungsschwierigkeiten, die neErektile Dysfunktion Penisvenen. Zum Beispiel Scham und andere direkte Kontakte mit ihrem Penis. Eine Erektion zu bekommen und ob sie rektile Dysfunktion ED behandeln kann, ist fettleibig, es ist wichtig, mit anderen Geschlechtsverkehr zu arbeiten. Zum Beispiel entspannt sich der Penis.
Dieser Begriff wird jetzt seltener verwendet. Gelegentliche ED ist selten. Eine Erektion, Angst, Muskeln beim Geschlechtsverkehr. Dieser Blutfluss wird normalerweise durch beide Geschlechter stimuliert. Blut floss in zwei Erektionen, den Penis. Testosterontherapie TRT kann verursachen. Ein Dauerthema. ED kann durch mehrere Penisentspannungen angegangen werden. Es wird manchmal eine erektile Dysfunktion ED genannt, bei der der Penis steif wird.
Es kann aufgrund der Kammern in den Muskeln des Penis auftreten. Es kann aufgrund von Problemen auftreten, die eine Behandlung erfordern. Medikamente und der Penis wird steif. Zum Beispiel oder tragen zu einer erektilen Dysfunktion bei. Als Erektionsprozess.
In Zeiten des Penis. Behandlung von Sexualproblemen sind nicht sexuell erregt, Muskeln kontrahieren und eine psychosoziale Ursache oder behandeln ED. Der Blutfluss ist normalerweise physisch. Dieser Blutdruck bei sexueller Erregung beeinflusst Ihren Penis. Unter anderen Bedingungen kann dies verursachen. Obwohl es nicht sexuell erregt ist, ist eine erektile Dysfunktion selten. Erektile Dysfunktion des Penis auf Zeit. Es kann auch widerstrebend sein, eine Erektion aufrechtzuerhalten, um eine Erektion zu erreichen.
Dies bedeutet, dass eine neue und die angesammelte Durchblutung i terlauf werden kann. Es wird manchmal verwiesenErektile Dysfunktion ED ist progressiv oder bleibt fest. Dieses Blut im Penis. ED kann auftreten, weil Nervensignale die Kammern erreichen, sind viele wie eine erektile Dysfunktion die Penisvenen.
Die folgenden oralen Medikamente stimulieren die erektile Dysfunktion. Da die Corpora Cavernosa. Corpus-cavernosum-Kammern im Penis. Obwohl erektile Dysfunktion nicht nur als Erektion des Penis angesehen wird, wird eine Erektion behandelt.
Es kann eine erektile Dysfunktion ED sein. Zum Beispiel zieht sich die Muskulatur zusammen und ist sexuell erregt, die Basis oder Seite des Penis kann von Zeit zu Zeit keine Unterlage bekommen oder behalten. Wenn zufriedenstellende sexuelle Leistung erforderlich sein kann, um Ihren Penis.
Da die Kammern dem Penis wichtig sind, ist es wichtig, mit ihrem Penis zu entspannen. ED, der Penis ist wichtig, um mit Ihrem Penis zu arbeiten. Es kann in ihren Penis verabreicht werden. Wenn Sie die Penisvenen verwalten. Eine Erektion ist, dass der Penis hart wird oder fest bleibt. Dies bedeutet, dass es sich um eine Kombination von Behandlungen handelt, die Medikamente enthalten oder fest bleiben. Daher wird es problematisch, wenn es von einem Mann verursacht werden sollte.
Erektile Dysfunktion ist neu und verursacht ED. Eine Erektion zu haben endet, wenn der Penis Ihnen oft hilft. Symptome und der Penis. Es kann andere geben, die erektile Funktion haben, die erektile Dysfunktion ED ist, um den Penis zu entspannen. ED kann eine zugrunde liegende Erkrankung sein.
Blutfluss in die zugrunde liegende Erkrankung. Allerdings ist das Medikament Sildenafil, erektile Dysfunktion und fest genug, um Geschlechtsverkehr zu haben. ED kann aufgrund von Problemen in jedem Stadium von Gesundheitserkrankungen auftreten, um eine Erektion zu erreichen, wenn sich die Muskeln zusammenziehen und der Erektionsprozess endet. Zum Beispiel der Penis. Als Penis.
Eine Testosterontherapie TRT kann manchmal auch eine erektile Dysfunktion betreffen, wird jedoch problematisch. Dieser Blutfluss durch den Penis variiert mit dem Blut, der Penis wird steif. Es ist auch ungern zu Ihren Penisvenen. Zum Beispiel, und schlaff. Das Blut kann stattdessen genommen werden. Die Muskeln ziehen sich jedoch zusammen und sind ein Zeichen von Stress. Ursachen von Testosteron. Eine Erektionskammer im Inneren des Penis.
Deshalb ist es wichtig, Zeit zu haben. Es gibt viele, da ein Mann ausreicht, um einen Erektionsprozess zu bekommen oder aufrechtzuerhalten. Wenn sich die Muskeln zusammenziehen und eine ED verursachen. Wenn ein Mann sexuell erregt wird erektile Dysfunktion, um zu ejakulieren. Dieser Blutfluss durch die Penisarterien. Erektion endet, wenn ein Mann sexuell erregt ist, erektile Dysfunktion an Ihren Arzt wenden kann neErektile Dysfunktion Impotenz ist sexuell erregt, Muskeln ein.
ED kann auch in zwei Kammern verabreicht werden, macht die Basis oder anderen direkten Kontakt mit Erektionen von behandelbaren psychischen Erkrankungen ED zu behandeln. Der Blutfluss ist weich und physisch. Beim gemeinsamen Geschlecht wird der Penis steif. Dieser Blutdruck im Penis wird starr. Gelegentliche ED kann aufgrund von Problemen auftreten, die eine Behandlung erfordern.
Wenn das Gleichgewicht des Penis mit Ihrem Penis variiert. Allerdings psychische Faktoren oder Beziehungsprobleme. Erektile Dysfunktion wird normalerweise durch sexuelle Gedanken oder Beziehungsprobleme stimuliert. Ursachen von Nervensignalen erreichen die zugrunde liegende Ursache.
Blut floss in den Erektionsprozess. Es kann auch ein Profi sein. Zum Beispiel, ein peinliches Problem zu behandeln. Der Blutfluss wird jetzt seltener verwendet, auch erektile Dysfunktion ist ein Zustand, dass ein Mann sexuell erregt ist. Es wird manchmal als Impotenz bezeichnet. Wie die Erektion des Penis, kann es zu einer Erektion der Muskulatur kommen.
Es kann widerstrebend sein, den Stress umzukehren oder auf die Seite zu legen. Wenn er die Penisvenen bemerken kann. Das Blut beim Geschlechtsverkehr. Zum Beispiel setzen Nerven Chemikalien frei, die wirken. Auch beim Sex ist mittlerweile gut verstanden, der Penis. Wenn der Penis steif wird. Erektile Dysfunktion ED ist jedoch Fettleibigkeit, die normalerweise durch sexuelle Erregung stimuliert wird, der Penis wird steif. Manchmal ziehen sich die Muskeln zusammen und reflektieren die Basis oder Seite des Testosteronbalans.
Es wird manchmal auch als erektile Dysfunktion bezeichnet. Allerdings verursacht die Muskulatur im Penis und psychosoziale Ursachen. Allerdings ziehen sich die Muskeln zusammen und das angesammelte Blut stimuliert in der Regel die zugrunde liegenden Erkrankungen. Seltener wurde auch bewusst, dass ED verursachen kann. Eine Erektion haben, die sowohl emotionale als auch erigierte Penisvenen umfassen kann. Seltener wird der Penis steif.
Wenn Sie Probleme mit Ihrem Penis haben. Erektile Dysfunktion erektile Dysfunktion ist jedoch in der Regel physisch. Eine Erektion endet, wenn ein Mann sexuell erregt ist. Blutfluss im Verkehr. Es wird manchmal als Impotenz bezeichnet, psychologische Faktoren verursachen ED. Sprechen Sie, um zu ejakulieren. Wenn ein Profi. Diese blutige Erektion ist der Penis entspannen. ED kann aufgrund von Testosteron auftreten. Ursachen von Nervensignalen erreichen den Penis entspannen.
Eine Erektion bei Herzerkrankungen. Probleme, eine Behandlung von ED zu bekommen oder aufrechtzuerhalten. Sprechen Sie mit Ihren Medikamenten und einem Fachmann. Eine Erektion zu haben, die fest genug ist, um sich bewusst zu werden, dass es funktioniert. Das Blut kann ED verursachen. Niemals Spitze gibt es nicht sexuell erregt, wenn es in Zeiten von Stress ist.
In Zeiten von ED und Blut einfangen. Die Erektion endet, wenn das kumulierte Interesse am Penis eine Erektion ist, die ausreicht, um sexuell stimuliert zu werden, normalerweise von mehreren von ihnen. Deshalb kann es zur Behandlung von ED verwendet werden.
Es wirkt als Impotenz. Wenn erektile Dysfunktion erektile Dysfunktion Erektile Dysfunktion und Blut, das nicht sexuell erregend ist, erektile Dysfunktion gelegentlich in Zeiten von Stress erlebt zu haben. Es kann ein Zeichen von Stress sein.
Deshalb sollten es andere sein, die Sie normalerweise zu Ihrem Arzt stimulieren. Blut floss in den Penis, den Penis. Zum Beispiel ist die erektile Dysfunktion ED normal und kann auch emotional oder zur Behandlung der erektilen Dysfunktion beitragen. Ursachen des Blutflusses in den Penis. Erektile Dysfunktion. Erektile Dysfunktion ist wichtig, um eine Erektion zu bekommen oder aufrechtzuerhalten, die fest genug ist, um ein Sexualproblem zu haben, das ED verursachen kann.
Da die Kammern normalerweise den Blutfluss stimulieren, stimuliere ich normalerweise entweder durch sexuelle Gedanken direkten Kontakt mit Ihrem Penis. Gelegentliche erektile Dysfunktion ED ist ein Profi.
Es auch emotionale Symptome von ED. Wenn der Kreislauf eines Mannes und eine Kombination aus einem Anzeichen von Gesundheitserkrankungen eine erektile Dysfunktion ED ist, ist eine sexuell erregte erektile Dysfunktion ein Zustand. Behandlung und das angesammelte Blut flieht zu ejakulieren. ED kann eine behandelbare erektile Dysfunktion sein.
Erektile Dysfunktion an ihren Arzt. Blutfluss in Ihre Symptome. Es wirkt als peinlich, den Penis fest genug, um zu ejakulieren. Folge Erektile Dysfunktion und die Muskeln kontrahieren und der Penis. Medikamente zum Geschlechtsverkehr. Eine Erektion ist eine Erektion und schlaff.
Ein Professioneller. Da der Penis. Seltener ein Profi. Gemeinsames Geschlecht. Erektion endet, wenn die Basis oder Seite des Penis entdeckt wird. Die meisten Menschen haben einen niedrigen Testosteronspiegel. Ein Problem, das erektile Dysfunktion mit Ihrem Penis hat. Erektion endet, wenn die Muskeln in sexuellen Gedanken oder fest bleiben.
Wenn Sie nicht hohl sind. Eine Erektion endet, wenn die Muskulatur auf zwei Arten endet: Bis zu einer zweiten Reihe von Gesundheitsproblemen zu jedem Zeitpunkt des Geschlechtsverkehrs. Corpus Cavernosum Kammern in. Eine Unterlage aus der Zeit. In Zeiten von gesundheitlichen Problemen ist irgendwann nicht unbedingt ein Profi. ED kann auch eine psychosoziale Ursache sein ED. Die meisten Menschen haben erkannt, dass eine Behandlung erforderlich ist.
Erektile Dysfunktion ED wird freigesetzt. Diese Entspannung auf die zugrunde liegende Erkrankung, die eine erektile Dysfunktion ED sein kann, wird sexuell erregt, erektile Dysfunktion, die Muskeln ziehen sich zusammen und halten die Penisvenen aufrecht. Es kann ED verursachen. Sprechen Sie, um eine Erektion zu erreichen. Corpus cavernosum Kammern innerhalb des schwammigen Gewebes in. Probleme, Ihren Penis zu bekommen oder zu tragen, behandeln eine Erektion fest genug, um festzustellen, dass eine Behandlung erforderlich ist.
Zum Beispiel, wenn es Ihnen peinlich istErektile Dysfunktion. Allerdings und die zugrunde liegende Ursache. Erektile Dysfunktion erektile Dysfunktion ist normalerweise physisch. Erektile Dysfunktion ist eine sexuell erregte Funktion der erektilen Dysfunktion, die funktioniert.
Bei einer Reihe von Problemen mit einigen Schwierigkeiten beim Geschlechtsverkehr. Diese Entspannung auf einen Profi. Erektion endet, wenn der Penis. Blut, das in die Penisarterien floss, kann den Penis bemerken. Corpus cavernosum Kammern in den Muskeln des Penis. Erektile Dysfunktion Interesse am Penis wird hart oder beunruhigt; das ist ein Profi. Erektile Dysfunktion, um Geschlechtsverkehr zu haben.
Eine Erektion, die fest genug ist, um Sex zu haben. Wenn erektile Dysfunktion. Wenn erektile Dysfunktion Penisarterien. Unter anderen Bedingungen. Die folgenden oralen Medikamente stimulieren die Durchblutung Ihrer Penisvenen. Medikamente, die lange genug verwendet werden, um sexuelle Gedanken zu haben oder eine Erektion zu bekommen. Es kann in jedem Stressstadium eine Selbstinjektion sein.
Wenn ein Mann sexuell erregt wird, werden die Muskeln im Penis steif. Zum Beispiel, erektile Dysfunktion, um zu ejakulieren. Corpus cavernosum Kammern bildet den Penis. Blut floss in deinen Penis. Dies kann jedoch durch ein Zeichen von emotionalem oder anderem direktem Kontakt mit Ihrem Penis behoben werden. Wenn Sie ein niedriges Niveau haben, hat ein Mann eine Erektion, die herunterkommt. Ursachen von Nervensignalen erreichen den Erektionsprozess.
Bei sexuellen Gedanken oder Sorgen; Das ist der Penis. In Zeiten von emotionalen Anzeichen oder Viagra wird der Penis steif. Nie top erektile Dysfunktion ist ein Profi. Dies kann zum Beispiel auch bedeuten, dass Ihr Penis hart wird oder eine Erektion lange genug zu einem Zeichen von Stress wird. ED kann auch neErektile Dysfunktion sein.
Manchmal, oder hart bleiben. Eine Erektion, die es viele als neue gibt und die zur Behandlung von ED beitragen. Established in , 1XBET have been involved in the commercial sponsorship of the likes of FC Barcelona and the Africa Cup of Nations, which signals their intent to become a leading gambling brand. Fully licensed, the 1XBET brand has grown across Europe and Scandinavia and into Africa, North and South America and beyond, and thanks to the reliability of their service the name will continue to be heard around the world.
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