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Creating the Museum of Tomorrow: choosing the place, inviting professionals and studying references The Museum of Tomorrow is an interesting case to investigate the relation between architecture, museography and museology, considering that the architecture was designed and built in response to the. The Museum of Tomorrow was only carried out due to the preparation of Rio de Janeiro for hosting the Olympic Games.
The Museum of Tomorrow was coordinated by the Roberto Marinho Foundation, a private non-profit institution linked Grupo Globo, the biggest Brazilian media conglomerate. The project would be an intervention in the built heritage. Both concept, location and architectural design of the Museum of Tomorow have changed considerably during the creation process.
He also decided to invite the architect Santiago Calatrava to develop a new building design Porto Novo, This decision took place after a trip taken by Eduardo Paes through the cities of Barcelona, Athens and London, in order to better know some examples of urban transformations implemented in cities that would host Olympic Games respectively in the years of , , Ritto, This reference was considered by the mayor an example of good practices related to urban infrastructure and to create global images of cities.
Considering this background, we can see the replacement of an intervention in a historical building, what would be a project of low visibility, by a new global architect building. That signs out the intention to create a symbolic icon for the urban renovation of the Rio de Janeiro port area. Therefore, experimenting new materials is a fundamental priority for his design process, in order to construct a new imagery power architecture in the global context. It combines the development of a formal aesthetic language linked to the future with the experiment of some functional solutions that interpret the possibilities of creating a sustainable architecture, adopting the use of solar energy and water reuse systems, and also the location of an underground sewage treatment station to purify the waters of Guanabara Bay.
In addition to these guidelines, the relation established between the Museum of Tomorrow and its surroundings is marked by contrast, especially regarding to the materiality of the buildings. Inside, the free plan proposes the creation of a flexible space, allowing museography to develop itself independently of architecture.
The exhibition design was initially conceived by the US office Ralph Appelbaum, world renowned for the development of spectacular exhibition design. This last case seems to have been one of the main references taken for the creation of the Museum of Tomorrow, instead of mobilizing other science museum examples Oliveira, ; Tolmasquim, It is known that the Cosmocaixa Museum Barcelona, was an important reference studied for the Museum of Tomorrow.
The main idea developed at the Museum of Tomorrow was the creation of critical exhibitions based on the interaction with scientific phenomena and concepts, seeking to include visitors in larger experiences that stimulate the reflection by exploring diversified topics such as science, technology, society and environment.
Who we are? Where are we? Where are we going? How do we want to go? Through these questions, the narrative is structured around some defined objectives: to analyze the polarity between cosmic and terrestrial sciences, to reflect on the dimensions of existence, to evaluate the trends that will define the common future for humanity such as climate change, increasing population and longevity, diversification of artifacts, integration and decrease of biomes , and to address aspects related to human behavior and ethics, incorporating sustainability and coexistence guidelines through audiovisual environments, interactive installations and technological games.
The diverse topics covered by the Museum of Tomorrow are reflected in the wide variety of professionals responsible for its curatorial structuring. The curatorial team includes experts in physics, meteorology, medicine, architecture, philosophy and social sciences. In respect to the architectural design, the original idea was detailed, according to the Brazilian urbanistic laws, by the office Ruy Rezende Arquitetura.
The concrete structure, calculated by Engeti Consultoria e Engenharia, was built with reinforced. For its execution, which occurred in almost three hundred concreting stages, there were created specific shapes for single use. These structures are moved by hydraulic pistons equipped with photovoltaic plates for capturing solar energy.
The North American firm responsible for the exhibition design, Ralph Appelbaum, also did not develop all the design stages, which were assumed by the Brazilian office Artificio Arquitetura Expografia, led by the architect Vasco Caldeira.
The exhibition design faced the challenge of occupying a broad architectural space. The main guideline established for the exhibition design was that it should be independent from the architectural space. However, both Clerici and Caldeira declared there were no alignment meetings with Ralph Appelbaum, so that the design was adapted several times in order to be aligned with architecture itself, which was already fully defined and would not be changed.
The architectural space consisted of a true challenge to be faced to create the linear narrative. You have no idea of the scale of space because now it is occupied. The exhibition design renounced the idea of creating galleries by compartmentalizing the interior space, also rejecting the proposition of creating many elements with little expressiveness, which would easily get lost inside such a big space.
The final solution was to propose a few strong, large and self-contained exhibit devices. The big size of the exhibits contributes to ensuring the suspense throughout the route, hiding the following devices. Whereas there are no architectural transitions that limit the passage from one section to another, the designers proposed to change the aesthetic language of the exhibits in order to delimitate the five sections. Although the narrative created for the Museum of Tomorrow was designed in a linear way, the circulation scheme planned for the building suggested fluid flows at the large internal space located on the first floor.
The inversion of the internal circulation flow was proposed so that the last point of the visit would be the wonderful see of the Guanabara Bay, concluding the route with a positive message for the future. A second issue that shows the mismatch between architecture and exhibition design refers to the use of the side corridors as exhibiting spaces.
According to Vasco Caldeira, during the design process, several studies have been done trying to adapt the curatorial proposal to the existing space, including the distribution of interactive modules the side aisles of the building, what would suggest fluid flows of visitation, making it possible to cross the building both longitudinal and transversely.
However, it was difficult either to adapt the exhibition design to the architectural space or to occupy the side ramps. These corridors were not designed as exhibition spaces. We tried several possibilities, but there are curved walls, bathroom entrances. The same thing happened with the ramps.
These are more operative places than spaces. As a result, the exhibits were located only at the central space. As we can see, the integrative design did not properly occur at the Museum of Tomorrow, which goes against the intention declared by the Roberto Marinho Foundation of proposing the integral collaboration between architecture, exhibition design and digital collections.
According to her, in other projects, such as the Football Museum or the Museum of Image and Sound MIS-RJ , the processes took place in an extremely collaborative way among professionals. Creating and updating digital content for the museum: new challenges The Museum of Tomorrow leads to the challenge of exhibiting digital collections. There is an evident interest in stimulating the public engagement for sustainability purposes. The adoption of digital interactive resources was the solution found to support a museum that would need constant updating.
The answer experimented to these questions is connected to the architectural design. The Museum of Tomorrow develops the idea of creating a multimedia exhibition Dzikean, As it does not conserve material collections, there would be no need for designing a large technical reserve area. So, the area occupied by the main exhibition is about 2, The creation of technological systems for supporting the digital collection is another important aspect of this innovative experience.
It was a challenge to develop a technology capable of operating the large database and continuously updating the exhibits. The museum needed to be constantly updated, but the initial idea was to make it almost manually, what would be impossible. It was much more comfortable to change the entire platform.
But that was a problem. When I arrived, the contents of the museum were already ready. The Brain System was ready, but it was not possible to automatically update digital data. But the way we created this System was very good. At the entrance, the visitor is given a radio frequency identification card, which records the data accessed by the public at the interactive screens. There are digital tables where the visitor can associate his card to his personal e-mail account.
There are more than content screens. And it did not get boring. The Iris System knows what the visitor has already seen. Then, the visitor can speak directly on six self-service totems located at the end of the route. Through artificial intelligence, the system can answer and ask questions about the topics of sustainability and convivence. At the end of the conversation, the system suggests to the visitor some green institutions in order to encourage social engagement after leaving the museum.
The visitor also receives an e-mail with these suggestions. As we can see, experimenting technologies inside the museum is an open field of possibilities that remains undergoing technological renewal and updating processes. The social interaction and the physical museum environment are also important factors considered Australian Museum, ; Yalowitz, Furthermore, the research methodology considers that the museum experience is a voluntary, non-sequential and responsive action to the museum environment.
Therefore, it contemplates a great variety of factors that influence the museum experience, such as the visitor intellectual contexts, lighting, colors, sounds and other design factors such as exhibition resources, showcases, objects, labels and captions Tallon, , p.
For that, the researcher needs to create observation sheets to guide the data annotation. So, the exhibition path was divided in the following sections: Cosmos 1 , Earth 2 , Anthropocene 3 , Tomorrow 4 and Us 5. Figure 1- Visitation flows. First floor. Prepared by the author. Interactive table. Table interactive Interactive screens 1. Interactive screens 2. Interactive screens 3. The average time of each stop is generally conditioned by the mediating agent of the visit educator, teacher, guide, etc.
For this reason, it was. Based on the presented map, we will analyze the spatial relationship established between visitors, architectural space, and museum devices. As the map indicates, there are some points of greater confluence of visitors, such as the planetarium Cosmos which causes large agglomeration points because its entry is controlled and restricted to a small group of visitors that remain on the device for eight minutes.
Next, the access to the Cosmic Horizons section is possible for three entries, so that we do not know if these visitors have passed by the previous experience. Then, in the section Earth, the doors entrance to the cubes are narrow in relation to the flow of visitation observed and that causes agglomeration.
Next, in Anthropocene, there is a great confluence but there is not enough space for people who did not want to see it. The passage inside the caverns also seems too narrow. When leaving the section Tomorrows, several visitors were confused with the route to be followed, getting lost in the side areas. At Us, the final wall also creates some flow problems, although it improves the lighting conditions of the device. The problems observed at the visitation flows occur because of the incongruous relation between architectural and museography design.
We can also see that the free plan is not perfectly matched with the linear and sequential museal narrative, what causes problems that negatively impact the visitation flows. I felt a little lost. These devices average medium current interaction time Cosmic Horizons: 55s; Life: 5min29s; Thinking: 2min53s; Earth interactive tables : 1min45s; Anthropocene: 2min13s; Tomorrows audiovisual resources : 1min32s and high maximum interaction times Cosmic Horizons: 6min06s; Life: 7min52s; Thought: 9min11s; Tierra interactive tables : 6min24s; Anthropocene: 7min42s, Tomorrows audiovisual resources : 5min15s Lupo, It was adopted in Cosmic Horizons, Life interior , Earth interactive tables , Caves, Tomorrows interactive tables and Tomorrows audiovisual resources.
However, it was possible to observe the repetition of similar contents in supports with. In general, it can be seen low times of interaction and low presence in interviews. Despite this, the times of interaction observed in the sections Thinking interior and exterior , Materia exterior and Life exterior were not relevant. Final reflections As the present study points out, the integrative design did not occur in the creation of the Museum of Tomorrow.
In practice, the professionals involved found out a project fragmentated situation, what has caused problems in the construction processes of the spatial narrative regarding to the architectural space of the museum, which are visible due to the difficulties encountered by visitors according to the analysis of the visiting fluids.
The interviews with visitors help us to clarify interesting aspects about their visitation processes. I saw much about the past, the present, but I have not seen the future. We do not see all this pessimism to the future. But the museum lacks the future. Because it is a Museum of Tomorrow, right?
In this way, the importance of museum design and architecture is pointed out. In the case of the Museum of Tomorrow, the architecture was not only faced as a container, but also as an active element for the creation of the museum narrative. The view is spectacular. We feel within the Sea, within the city. You see all the beauty and think: what you are doing to keep it? From a theoretical point of view, many authors sign out the importance of the relationship between architecture, museography and museology during the museum conception process, in order to enhance significance layers in the.
Although integrative design was taken as a premise for the Museum of Tomorrow project, it did not properly happen due to the Olympic Games context and to the mismatch between architects and exhibition designers. At some specific points, as the final view, the strategy proved to be successful. So, the present article tried to reflect on the understanding the process of creation and reception of a museum, trying to understand the relation between architecture, museography and museological conceptions.
This research tried to contribute to the reflection about the museum as a space for interaction in contemporaneity. So, analyzing the Museum of Tomorrow, this study aims to contribute to deepen the knowledge about the integrative design applied to the contemporary museum. Special thanks to the prof. Luciano Migliaccio, who guides the development of this research.
Thank all visitors of the Museum of Tomorrow, who kindly contributed to the development of this study. And, finally, I would like to thank my family for believing in the development of this research. Rio de Janeiro. Tracking and observation studies. Sydney, Australia. Davallon, J. Dzikean, V. Virtuality and the art of exhibition: curatorial design for the multimedial museum, Intellect, Chicago, USA. Jodidio, P. Lefaivre, L. Santiago Calatrava.
Lupo, B. Morena, Daniel. Interview, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Machado, T. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Malicheski, Isadora Finoketti. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre, Brazil. Montaner, J.
Gili, Barcelona, Spain. Interview [granted to Bianca Manzon Lupo]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Access in: 26 abr. Accessed in: 25 out. Ritto, C. Acessed in: 11 out. Santacana i Mestre, J. Sperling, D, Acesso em: 25 fev. Tallon, L.
Digital technologies and the museum experience: handheld guides and other media. Nova Iorque: Altamira Press, p. Tamaki, L. Access in: October, Tolmasquim, A. Interview granted to Bianca Manzon Lupo. Wagensberg, J. The total museum. Through conversation between architects and museologists, Sacyr, Barcelona, Spain. Yalowitz, S. Timing and tracking: unlocking visitor behavior, in Visitor Studies, 12, 1, p.
Abingdon, USA. Exhibition Architecture in Turin. Abstract Expose, from latin Exponere, ex-ponere, show, take out, allow something to be seen, is usually connected to the art exhibition in a museum; art in the widest sense of the word that includes sculptures and paintings, both from the past and from the present, art exhibitions or performances that take place in a closed place like a museum.
But if we consider the wide meaning of the word which is to show something out we can include more objects and more places. What we should exhibit, and which should be the character of the architecture of exposition? Today there are many museums on the ancient tradition, that exhibit artisan works such as ceramics, glass, wooden objects and so on; but also museums of visual arts like cinema or photography.
Showing is a way to know the past, the history and the culture of a place defining a heritage to broadcast to the future: knowing the past and the present to act in the future. Like Joseph Paxon teaches building the Crystal Palace in the first pavilion of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations-, to show is also a way to know the best abilities of a Nation, to pay attention to technological and technical innovations.
These are big buildings to expose the innovation in the automotive sector Fiat in the first case and the innovation of the century of transport in the second case. The structures, in accord of the natural light definite an emotional space that allow to qualify the exhibition objects, welcomed in an embrace.
The structural solutions allowed to build the Palace and the Hall in a short time using few materials thanks to the reutilization of formworks for the cast in place concrete in Palace and the use of precast concrete for the Hall. Structures composed of the repetition of single structural elements, ribs and pillars, define the entire space and at the same time represent the way to illuminate the space in a uniform way, in accordance with the temporary exhibition and the exhibits.
Light and shadow decorate the space without needing anything else, in the exaltation of what is exposed but not as a cold and anonymous container, but with character and independence. We can define these buildings as composed only by structure and light. The architecture shows the progress and the capacity of time - like the exhibits - but always with a deep connection with the past and cultural heritage. Introduction 1. Exhibiting what? Expose, from latin Exponere, ex-ponere, show, take out, allow something to be seen, is usually connected to the art exhibition in a museum; art in the widest sense of the word that includes sculptures and paintings, both from the past and from the present, art exhibitions or performances that take place in a closed place like a museum.
Today there are many museums on the ancient tradition that exhibit artisan works such as ceramics, glass, wooden objects and so on, but also museums of visual arts like cinema or photography. Like Joseph Paxon teaches building the Crystal Palace in the first pavilion of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations- to show is also a way to know the best abilities of a Nation, to pay attention to technological and technical innovations.
Larger architectures and greater simplification In the architectural field and in the modern era in which Pier Luigi Nervi works, the tools available are many: on the one hand the research about new materials, in particular reinforced concrete, on the other the progress of sciences and techniques; all this gives designers greater expressive possibilities both in architectural and structural terms. With the industrial development, steel and reinforced concrete structures spread thanks to their ability to meet the new needs of society which is in continuous and fast growth both for industrial development and for social progress: large new buildings are built such as theatres, cinemas, and stadiums to welcome a large number of people.
Just think of Le Halles market in Paris designed to accommodate many people in order to define a different use and conception of the city. The architecture is simplified, more and more as the buildings grow in size; the essentiality of form and space become necessary in a society where change is rapid. The principle of economy guides every choice: economy of materials materials immediately available, simple to use and in small quantities , economy of money, economy of gestures that corresponds to the reduction of the decorative element and economy of time speed of realization.
The development of new techniques accompanied by a modification of the society and its needs requires a reflection on the development of architecture, in fact, as Nervi observes, the large-scale works cannot in any way disregard the static requirements: structural design and planning architectural merge into one thing. The static needs of a building can be met in multiple ways, but the approach adopted leads to different results: the mere application of the formulas leads to the definition of inexpressive structures.
Otherwise, an approach that considers the physical laws and the trend of the forces can lead to the definition of expressive and aesthetically appreciable constructions. Almost as if everything that adheres to the laws of nature, even if we cannot have a direct perception of it, arouses harmony.
Exhibition Architecture in Turin of Pier Luigi Nervi Nervi won the public contract for the design and realization of the Palace of Labor in for the exhibition of in Turin to celebrate the centenary of the Unit of Italy. All are big exhibition buildings, aim to show, in the first case the innovation in the automotive sector Fiat and in the second case the century transport innovation.
The winning project was the result of the competition announced in July where dozen important Italian designers were invited to participate. The Hall had to be the place to welcome the international exhibition of Labor for the celebration of the first centenary of Italian Unity. The competition forecasted the design of a big building with a covered area of The need of economy covers every aspect of the project: economy of time, economy of money, - in fact, the building was required to be inexpensive -, economy of materials and economy of space.
At the same time there was the intention to build up a space of noble appearance comparable with the nobility of its aims. The structural invention contemplates all these aspects, representing in itself the expression of the quality of the building. In the Palace of Labor, the structure and the architecture are composed of a series of mushroom-shaped pillars whose repetition gives rhythm and defines the space.
A regular rectangular unique and unitarian space is characterized by pillars which repetition is at the base of the project that solves in that way the complexity of the request. The pillars are shaped following the course of the forces and the result is a monumental element, with a strong character, almost a Greek column.
There is a pause of light between one ceiling and another. Elements in the form of tapered ribs reaches out towards the linear thin light that separates one element of the roof from the other. The effect is of a highly expressive spatiality where the horizontality prevails over verticality, despite the great height of the building, and characterized by shadow and light that alternate in a contrasting manner. Detail of the ribbed ceiling of the gallery TSLF.
There is no need of nothing else, the structural solution coincides with the light solution: linear light that comes from the covering separates the elements from each other underlining their structural independence. The result is an alternation of light and shadows that emphasize the ribbed character of the ceiling that seems to pander the trend of the light on the surface.
These zenithally light, apparently few, thanks to the height of the space spread itself in the space illuminating it in a diffuse way. It becomes a space able to receive the exposition of every type of objects that do not need a direct light, in fact, the flexibility and the indirect illumination perfectly accord to different uses and different type of exhibitions.
The structure represents at the same time an element of support and decoration defining the space itself. The structural solution allows to build the Palace up in a short time and with few materials, in fact, it was enough one formwork to replicate all pillars in reinforced concrete. The pillars were cast on site, instead, the mushrooms were realized in a prefabricated way with a metal structure to reduce the time of constructions.
Also, the perimetral gallery intercepts the light and allows it to come inside in a diffuse way. The light wet the ribbed surface in a grazing way as a Baroque architecture. The detail with which everything is realized contributes to the spatial quality of a building that must hold together all the aspects of the design, from the proportions, the structure, the technology, and the lighting conditions.
It was designed as a big rectangular free hall 94,30 x 75 m with a circular apse; between and it was expanded by five spans that permanently erased the interior garden. In the same years Nervi with Ettore Sottsass designed a further extension that provides for an arc of m of light on the main front but the disappearance of Sottsass in stopped the project; meanwhile in there was added another space that is the Salon B.
As Nervi observed, there were many problems to solve, all linked together: static, constructional, and architectural problems. The aim was to design a space with aesthetic sensitivity in accordance with the technical possibilities. This offered many intrinsic technical qualities, such as maximum static efficiency and minimum use of material. It also permitted openings for windows on the side of the undulations. The brevity of time allowed for construction and the economic requirements directed me toward a solution using precast elements.
The rhythm of the structural elements and the spatial directionality have as their focus the semicircular apse, covered by a semi-dome in rhomboid prefabricated elements. The arched vault is harmoniously connected to pillars that seem to stretch out to lift the light decorated veil. A spatial compression defines an ambulatory along the longitudinal sides on two overlapping levels, almost like a church with a matroneum. The space presents a strong horizontality bringing back to memory a classic spatiality: everything is symmetrical, in the section the hierarchy between spaces, with compressions and expansion, scale and shape variation, is clearly established.
The large apsidal space, surrounded by a reduced measurement path recalls, in its dimensions and proportions, the great basilicas. Like for Roman architecture, space is perceived as a unit despite the fragmentary nature of the elements; the section differs, for structural reasons, but the intention is similar, that is to cover the large main space with a single element. The motor show of TSLF. The light comes directly from the cover which, in addition to its structural function, performs the role of controlling light and defining the boundary between inside and outside.
The problem of the limit, as Giulio Carlo Argan observes cp. Argan, , is identified with the problem of illumination in a phenomenological and not purely geometric or constructive conception of space. Light defines a static space, preventing us from understanding the actual measurement of it. In fact, light is never incident, but always uniform and widespread: an almost eternal, timeless ethereal environment.
In the Turin Exhibition main Hall, the vault is both a spatial term and a continuous light source, which ensures an oscillating illumination inside, whose frequency of vibration is determined by a succession of wavy fins. The lighting of the entire environment takes place through the cover, the light filters in through the individual segments defining a regular rhythm. The sinuous sectional shape allows the light to slip over it, thus the shade decoration is softened. Uniform and diffused light that rains from the top without fully understanding the origin except for the visual relationship established with the outside through the large circular windows of the apse, in turn shielded by a projecting floor.
The elegance of the intrados matches the large pillars modeled to connect with them. Detail in section of the covering with the study of the light AB. The undulated vault represents at the same time the static, constructive, and architectural solution, in fact, thanks to the section of single elements Nervi was able to open little windows that bring zenithal light. The light ray reflects itself on the undulated surface before coming inside. A static atmosphere of calm is so obtained.
The light in accord of the shape and the proportion of the space defines sensations. The great difference between these two design phases is that the first is objective in character and answers only to the technical, while the other is completely personal, and cannot be controlled by rules or reasoning. In this case the first phase determined the general principles: an undulated thin-shell vault made up of precast elements, the supports inclined according to the resultant of the stresses in the vault; a weight limit for the elements; and a method for erecting and joining them.
The second phase defined the spatial qualities, dependent on the height of the vault; the form of the undulations; the details of the diaphragms; the form and profile of the supports and of the lateral balconies always within the limits of the static requirements ; the dimensions and position of the windows in the vault; and the passage from the continuous undulated structure to the discontinuous one formed by the supports on which the vault had to rest a detail of great architectural interest.
The semicircular apse is covered by a half dome composed of precast rhomboidal elements supported by pillars on which rests a perimetral slab which absorbs the forces of the whole vault. This was built with the process experimented in Rome for the Torre Pietra warehouse, the aim is to decompose the structure in little precast elements and then link together in a self-supporting vault.
The structure represents the decoration of the ceiling and the expressiveness of the space at the same time, there no need of further decoration, the structure solves all aspects qualifying the space in accord of the light. Sections with the study of the light AB. The Salon was built in few months between the closing of one exhibition during the fall and the opening of the next one in June.
Plan and section whit the study of the light AB. Here too is used prefabricated method based on single ferrocement rhomboid elements, precast on site and then link together with a concrete casting in order to attach elements statically together. The rhomboid elements act as formwork for the ribs and, thanks to the geometric regularity of the planimetry, it was possible to use a small number of elements, repeated several times.
These elements are linked to the supports by a perimetric slab such as in the apse of the Agnelli Salon. All around the main hall there is a perimetral path with a different high compared to the main hall: the decompression of the space in. The relationship between the structure and the light that penetrates inside uniquely defines the space.
The light coming from the top and being filtered by the rhomboid elements is uniform and widespread. The unique and welcoming environment takes on the giant scale both for the large, lowered arch supports and for the growing section of the vault.
It is the light, as in the other projects, that defines the atmosphere. As on many other occasions Nervi prefers to illuminate the lower part of the vault and not the central part. The dramatic nature of the space diminishes and rejoices in an almost ethereal condition of light that sculpts the light ribbed roof. This led to illuminate the space and the vault in a diffuse way underlining the structural decoration of the ceiling with need of nothing else that is structure and light in the definition of space.
Conclusions Nervi considers the achievement of architectural expressiveness a natural consequence of a correct design, seeing the technical architecture and the aesthetic problem strictly connected. The method adopted by Nervi leads to the definition of forms that do not represent the presupposition or the main objective of the design, but a natural consequence of a project that seeks a phenomenological spatiality defined by the structure.
The constructive process constitutes the decisive invention of a form both from a technical and expressive point of view. The structure, and together with it the entire architecture, identifies the best possible solution in conformity with the physical laws for achieving harmony of proportions and forms.
According to Nervi the main task of the designer is to give expression to the different factors of a building, he must be able to have a clear general concept of all aspects of the construction process, in the same way that a director must know the possibilities and the limits of every musical instrument. Nervi, Cosenza, Marescotti, LeviMontalcini, Quaroni, Astengo Structures composed by the repetition of single elements, ribs, and pillars, define the entire space and, at the same time, represent the way to illuminate the space in a uniform way, in accordance with the temporary exhibition and the exhibits.
Light and shadow decorate the space without needing anything else, in the exaltation of what is exposed but not as a cold and anonymous container, but with a character and independence. The principle of economy guides the design of Nervi for all his works together with a constant experimentation with materials and techniques driven by the interest towards knowledge and the possibility to overcome his own abilities every time.
Construction is the true protagonist, which with a simplification process reduces itself to the essence, what remains is not that the structure, structure that supports, defines the form, the space, the language and the aesthetics. The space is defined by proportions, structure, materials, and natural light.
Architecture is poetic and can be defined as such only when it is able to arouse emotions, as the maximum expression of a conscious use of technology and materials: the achievement of harmony between technology and aesthetic sense is only possible if intuition guides the design, pertaining to the sphere of art, predominating over science. The goal achieved is the essential nature of the work.
Essentiality that has led Nervi to an ever-greater identification of architecture with the structure itself, as an element that supports but at the same time defines the space. It is the relationship between structure, space and natural light that defines that harmonic balance able to arouse emotion in the same way as the great architectures of the Past. The structure with Nervi becomes itself the project, the solution to all those technical, aesthetic and perceptive aspects that characterize the best architectures.
The starting point is an idea, an idea of space able to arouse emotions as architecture is first of all poetic inspiration. The construction technique, the materials, the mathematical formulas are tools to translate all this into real construction. Matter and rhythm are closely linked to measure and proportion, instruments to which Nervi pays much attention to define the space as a whole perceptive so that it is able to arouse emotions. The hierarchy between spaces is often denounced by the difference in section compression and decompression according to the geometry in plan linear, central.
The repeated structural element underlines the geometry of the space in a harmonious balance where the technical solution and its realization vary according to the requirements in perfect harmony with the spatiality achieved. The ribbed structures, designed according to the laws of physics, represent the true decoration of space that is defined only by these.
We can define the buildings as composed only by structure and light. They have to reconquer space as a sensitive and living element, and not from a secure extrapolation from graphic symbols. Now we can judge from reality what mistakes modern architecture has made by ignoring the spaces in their concreteness; obviously admitting that modern architecture lives from reality and is not transferred as a fact of culture to its two-dimensional symbols, drawing and photography.
The lighting at the impost of the vault, strongly linked to the Byzantine e. Nervi, in fact, illuminating the domes at their impost, screens the light so that it never enters directly. The diffused and above all grazing light to a ribbed surface of which it is not possible to identify the light source is typical of the Baroque architecture. The light from the covering represents instead an attitude comparable to that of the Classical architecture, just think of the Pantheon, the numerous Renaissance domes e.
Basilica of Superga in Turin and Guarini e. Chapel of the Holy Shroud in Turin. Nervi always prefers indirect lighting, even when it opens a central oculus in the dome, it does so by shielding the light and inserting an element inside which the beam breaks and is reflected the Rome sports Hall and the Sports Palace of Rome.
The lighting condition in the definition of space represents, in history, a founding element of architecture. The Exhibition Buildings in Turin demonstrate the attention given to the lighting condition of the ambiences, conceived in their three-dimensionality. The diffused and uniform light suspends the time of which it is not possible to understand the passing; the feeling is that of an ethereal architecture defined by light coverings decorated by the structure itself.
References Nervi P. La proporzione nella tecnica, in. Domus n. Nervi P. Moretti L. Strutture e sequenze di spazi, in Spazio, n. It consists of a collection of vehicles and instruments, typical of the arts of military and warfare production. It is a collection of military and non-military objects exhibited in the area of the so-called Polo di Mantenimento Pesante Nord, historically intended for the production and maintenance of strategic, tactical, and logistical equipment of the Italian Army.
After the unification of Italy, the barracks and military areas of Piacenza have housed workshops and factories of armaments but have also forged men and developed scientific and technical skills, which have enriched the heritage of workers and design skills of the mechanical industry of Emilia as a whole. Not to mention that among the barracks, which were built in the second half of the XIX century, it is still possible to recognise the precious remains of the Renaissance bastion walls, which remained included in the military area.
This contribution aims to describe a technological centre of excellence, still operational, with an annexed museum complex in progress which consists of individual and departmental weapons, factories from the early XX century, armoured vehicles, tools for the design and construction of particularly valuable and high-precision factories, as well as the remains of Pierluigi Farnese Castle keystone of the XVI century fortifications of the city. The purpose of this presentation is to establish the essential principles to be inspired by when creating an exhibition of significant historical and educational value.
Elements ranging from the Sangallesque bastions to ancient and modern instruments for the works of fusion and metallurgy in general are examined. Among real buildings of monumental value and miniature models, we can tell the story of the Po Valley, from Humanism to the contemporary period, with a critical and attentive look at the Industrial Revolution.
We intend to carry on a deep analysis of a truly complete and unique collection of objects, which unfolds in time and space, outlining the history of the City of Piacenza. We have the opportunity to design a museum, using the spaces of existing factories, walking through the city walls, through the barracks.
In practice, in order to develop the point and make it clear, a conceptual map is drawn. Not only is the museum that serves the purpose confined to a building, but it also relies on open-air places, playful areas, and points of dissemination of education and culture. The museum displays a set of living monuments, rich in historical value, is close to still active laboratories which can be used in part for the maintenance of the pieces on display.
Local, military, civil and industrial history are the main themes to be analysed and included in this cultural and educational synthesis aimed at providing them with an adequate and harmonious framework. In doing that, it is possible to describe a collection of very different objects in shape and size and a collation of events to be duly taken care of in a large permanent exhibition all around the city.
Sangallesque bastion. In the open air and under the metal trusses of large workshops, a few tracks and an old yellow locomotive are still there, where in the past they were used to supply materials to the workshops and the laboratories. A collection of memories, shapes, and structures to preserve, collate and restore.
General and historical background The Military Pole of Piacenza was formed after the proclamation of the Unification of Italy. Historically, the city has always had a vocation as a traffic hub, on the river Po, between the Mediterranean Sea and Central Europe. A disputed place between the Seignory of Milan and the Serenissima, it rose to the rank of Duchy when, from the territory of the State of the Church, Pope Paolo III Farnese made it a feud for his son, Pierluigi, at the dawn of the 16th century.
The urbe surrounded by bastioned walls, a strategic stronghold in times of war and peace, welcomes a large number of convents, churches, barracks. In the 19th century, under the Kingdom of the Savoy, the good military tradition continued and strengthened. The construction of fire mouths and, at the same time, explosives and ammunition is preserved; the good technological and logistic school of the Pontieri thrives, cannons, special vehicles and tanks are maintained.
After the World War II, the complex production system became a point of reference for the construction and maintenance of weapons and military vehicles. Mechanics, draftsmen, architects, engineers, topographers, experts in fine measurements, blacksmiths, smelters, animate this place. The design of armaments, their correct conservation, and knowledge of metallurgy constitute a solid and, for many years, constantly growing heritage.
Historical stratification and tradition are of fundamental importance in this context. The signs left by time are meaningful. They range from the tools of the work to the means maintained and punctually repaired and restored. Important are the buildings, too, which were designed to house laboratories and workshops. They represent telling examples of buildings from the 19th and 20th centuries, still in use, despite the fact that in the last thirty years the activity has been reduced.
The technological, historical and cultural heritage The issue that arises spontaneously is whether we are faced with a centre dedicated to war industry, or whether the definition of a defence logistic pole, contains within its important data and meanings for the history of Piacenza as a whole.
The latter instance leads to an exact understanding of the places under observation. The history of the Polo di Mantenimento Pesante Nord and the apparatus of the Army Corps of Engineers is not only a chronicle of military events. It is the history of the city. It is a narration of cultural, technical, scientific, and business events. It is a social and urban heritage. Knowing how to size a fire mouth and forging its material led to a full understanding of metal modelling.
The care of the equipment also included the intervention of master leathermakers who made the horse harness, saddles, and other pieces of equipment for regiments and military corps. Alongside these important preparations, the hospital for the troops of the newly established Italian Army was built. The construction was inaugurated in and bears the characteristics of modernity and rationality in its internal distribution.
At the same time, it shows in the aesthetic and formal solutions of the fronts, the fundamental qualities of architectural eclecticism. This notation also provides a way of contemplating the built heritage of the entire facility. In a similar picture, old factories in Art Nouveau style, precious testimonies of the 20th century industrial architecture, stand out.
Both the places and the objects contained there can be considered important memories. The geometries outlined by the brush are a skilful mix of craftsmanship. They have become objects to be preserved the same drawing tables of the very good technicians and designers of the Military Genius.
Today this is the first true nucleus of a museum in progress, a space that is being organized as a place of memory. The military hierarchies, the staff, including some of those who have served in the factories and who now put their precious work experience at the service of the collection and exhibition of objects and monuments, are the creators of this process. The wooden models describe the topography and history of the places. They are followed by the mechanical and optical instruments that allowed the execution of fine precision manufacturing, from the graphics to the forming of the pieces.
Bullet ogives, castings or turning of gears, forging of metal components, repair and grinding of armaments, both individual and departmental. From rifles to vehicles, people tried and still try their hand at various objects, related to equipment, logistics, strategy, and tactics. Practically every field of military knowledge. In peace and war. The visitor, who by appointment, alone or in a group, can see what has been shown and described, can take a journey into the past of the art of war, to understand the modus operandi of Defence and Civil Protection of modern times.
There is no lack of refined scale reconstructions of ephemeral bridges for the passage of troops, cariaggi, land and sea vehicles for the manoeuvre of troops and their transfers. Very interesting are the vehicles and weapons, life-size, preserved, restored, or faithfully reconstructed. It emerges, in the eyes of the curious, even if profane, the folding bicycle of the World War I, on which Fanti, Bersaglieri and Porta Ordini pedalled.
Numerous are the fire mouths and cannons, built in series, or made as prototypes. The military ground vehicles, ancient and modern, are well represented in the whole and in detail. Visible reconnaissance vehicles, transport vehicles for troops and materials, armoured vehicles, and armed loved ones. Ancient ones are restored and occasionally displayed. Modern ones are reviewed and modified. An interesting, varied, and complete overview.
The military history of the last two centuries is well represented, but there is no lack of meaningful monuments of the Renaissance period. In the perimeter of the military zone, constituted since the 19th century, the remains of the Farnesian Castle have in fact remained included. The work of partial restoration of these precious remains of sixteenth-century fortification is relatively recent.
Starting from the s, the commanders of the military pole, have contributed to highlight and safeguard the ruins of the bastioned Castrum, previously long neglected. A singular and significant fact. In the aftermath of the liberation of Piacenza from the Austrian troops, at the height of the Wars of Independence, the fury of the population was fierce on the ancient Renaissance fortress.
Pentagonal in shape, with five strong ramparts, it was attacked and soon dismembered by the people of Piacenza, who made its curtain walls salvaged bricks. The fact that from then on it was included in a military establishment, although neglected and maimed, the ruin of the ancient fortress was not attacked by the aims of those seeking building spaces for physiological urban expansion. In the last decade of the last century, the military genius has freed the remaining buildings from the canopies that had been leaning against them and the vegetation.
In this way the remains of three bastions are visible, facing outside the ancient city walls. In the visits that are allowed to citizens, enthusiasts, scholars, students and schoolchildren, the castle is an essential destination in the excursion to the museum. In synthetic terms, although not very elegant, it serves as a content and container. The ramparts can be admired in their geometric conformation, which despite the mutilations suffered and the ravages of time, is still legible admirable.
The inner chambers of countermining house a small but significant collection of replicas of tournament armour from the 16th century and reconstructive scale models of the castle. A work-in-progress museum The technological, historical, and cultural heritage is therefore very wide and varied. The problem is that it is variously distributed in workshops and barracks buildings.
It is arranged according to military and industrial logistics and not according to a museum and educational exhibition. In practice, when you enter such a military establishment, which is still partly active, you can have count both of the working processes in place with the necessary safety limits and precautions for visitors and of important testimonies and vestiges.
The latter range in various areas, as described above. In practice you are in front of a widespread museum, an articulated route between workshops, factories, still in existence, ancient and modern military vehicles, neatly arranged in a row. A place where it is possible to observe the most modern technological applications in the field of security of a state and the provisions to be implemented in the event of natural disasters albeit with the limitations due to the confidentiality of advanced projects and the safety of patrons , the evidence of past.
We are not faced with a place of exposure specifically designed to be such, but with an interesting and singular mixture of existing activities and places of history. As the current practical and productive functions evolve, becoming more sophisticated and less in need of manpower, spaces are freed up in factories, where finds.
Behind the constitution of this great machine for the exhibition of objects, artefacts and buildings, there is not the hand of a single designer. The metamorphosis in which Present and Past coexist is a harbinger of great values, both technical, scientific, and educational. It takes place in compliance with norms and dictates that regulate a military installation, active in the social and administrative life of a modern state, at the same time open to citizens to provide evidence of what has happened in the economic and productive development of a territory.
References Bulian, G. Libri e mostre. Carducci, G. Ethics, Law and Heritage, in Icom News 3. Il castello ritrovato di Pierluigi Farnese. TEP, Piacenza, Italy. Howarth, F. ICOM Statutes. Canal de Castilla. Laguna de La Nava. Arribes del Duero. Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia. Valle del Cuerpo de Hombre. Sabinares de Somosierra.
Lagunas de Coca y Olmedo. Lagunas de Cantalejo. Sierra de Guadarrama. Valles del Voltoya y el Zorita. Sierra de Pradales. Sabinares Sierra de Cabrejas. Cigudosa-San Felices. Sabinares de Ciria-Borobia. Sierra del Moncayo.
Quejigares y encinares de Sierra del Madero. Encinares de Tiermes. Encinares de Sierra del Costanazo. Altos de Barahona. Humedales de Los Arenales. Sierra de la Culebra. Quejigares de la Tierra del Vino. Lago de Sanabria y alrededores. Sierra de la Cabrera. Campo Alto de Aliste. Lagunas de Tera y Vidriales. Laguna de Los Ojos de Villaverde. Laguna del Arquillo. Sierra de Abenuj.
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Quejigares de Barriopedro y Brihuega. Sierra de Altomira. Laderas yesosas de Tendilla. Montes de Picaza. Sabinares rastreros de Alustante - Tordesilos. Sierra de Caldereros. Barrancas de Talavera. Montes de Toledo. Estepas salinas de Toledo. Yesares del valle del Tajo. Humedales de La Mancha. Complejo lagunar de La Jara. Mina de la nava de Ricomalillo. Rios de la margen izquierda del Tajo y berrocales del Tajo. Complejo Lagunar de la Albuera. Dehesas de Jerez.
Rivera de los Limonetes - Nogales. Sierra de Escorial. Sierra de Moraleja. Sierra de Siruela. Sierra de Villares - Balbueno. Corredor del Lacara. Cueva del Valle de Santa Ana. Cuevas de Alconera. Refugio de Sierra Pascuala. Corredores de Siruela. Laguna temporal de Murtales. Laguna temporal de Tres Arroyos. Sierra de Maria Andres.
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Sierra de las Villuercas y Valle del Guadarranque. Sierras de Risco Viejo. Mina de la Aurora. Mina de la Rivera de Acebo. Refugio del Alto de San Blas. Arroyos Barbaon y Calzones. Arroyos Patana y Regueros. Embalse Arce de Abajo. Embalse de Lancho. Embalse de Petit I.
Laguna temporal de Corrales. Laguna temporal de Valdehornos. Rivera de Aurela. Rivera de Membrio. Riveras de Carbajo y Calatrucha. Riveras de Gata y Acebo. Monasterio de Yuste. Riu i Estanys de Tordera. Serres del Litoral Septentrional. Montserrat-Roques Blanques-riu Llobregat. Serres del Litoral central. Serra de Castelltallat. Sistema Prelitoral Central. Riera de Sorreigs. Costes del Maresme. Valls de l'Anoia. Costes del Garraf. Riera de la Goda. Riera de Clariana. Serra de Collserola. Estany de Banyoles.
Basses de l'Albera. Riberes del Baix Ter. Estany de Sils-Ribera de Santa Coloma. Muntanyes de Rocacorba-Puig de la Banya del Boc. Riberes de l'Alt Ter. Riberes de l'Alt Segre. Serra de Turp i Mora Condal-Valldan. Serra de Boumort-Collegats. Aiguabarreig Segre-Cinca. Aiguabarreig Segre-Noguera Pallaresa. Serres del Montsec, Sant Mamet i Mitjana. Estany d'Ivars- Vilasana. Secans de la Noguera. Obagues de la riera de Madrona. Estanys de Basturs. Plans de la Unilla. Secans de Belianes-Preixana.
Ribera de l'Algars. Muntanyes de Prades. Riberes i Illes de l'Ebre. Sistema Prelitoral meridional. Tossals d'Almatret i Riba Roja. Riu Siurana i planes del Priorat. Tossal de Montagut. Serra de Montsant-Pas de l'Ase. El Montmell-Marmellar. Grapissar de la Masia Blanca. Obagues del riu Corb. Barranc de Santes Creus. Laguna de Salinas. Salero y Cabecicos de Villena. Algepsars de Finestrat.
Arenal de Petrer. Rambla de las Estacas. Sierra de Escalona y Dehesa de Campoamor. Penya-segats de la Marina. Aitana, Serrella i Puigcampana. Serra Gelada i Litoral de la Marina Baixa. Serra de Crevillent. Sierra de Callosa de Segura. Dunes de Guardamar.
Sierra de Orihuela. Cap de les Hortes. Litoral de Cabo Roig. Sierra de Salinas. Valls de la Marina. Cueva del Perro-Cox. Cova dels Mosseguellos-Vallada. Desert de les Palmes. Curs alt del riu Millars. Platja de Moncofa. Alguers de Borriana-Nules-Moncofa.
Marjal d'Almenara. Cova Obscura-Atzeneta del Maestrat. Lavajos de Sinarcas. Puebla de San Miguel. Sabinar de Alpuente. Sierra del Negrete. Hoces del Cabriel. Serra de Corbera. Marjal de la Safor. Dunes de la Safor. Muela de Cortes y el Caroche. Serra de la Safor. Sierra de Malacara. Ullals del riu Verd. Sima de les Graelles-Tous. Cova de la Moneda-Cotes. Cova de les Meravelles de Llombai. Cova del Sardiner-Sagunt. Cueva Negra-Ayora. Cueva del Barranco Hondo-Cheste.
Cova de les Meravelles d'Alzira. Cova Xurra-Gandia. Comuna de Bunyola. Illots de Ponent d'Eivissa. Cimals de la Serra. Costa de Llevant. Cap Llentrisca - Sa Talaia. Basses de la marina de Llucmajor. Cova des Bufador des Solleric. Cova de sa Bassa Blanca.
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