An upright ex-army man, Jai fights a solitary war against corruption and injustice. With a simple mantra to pay forward, he starts off by helping one person. A. R. Rahman made his debut in Indian Music Industry with the Tamil film Roja. Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Jai Ho". Jai Ho. DocumentaryMusic. The Film brings to its viewers, of one of the greatest musicians the world has ever known: A. R. Rahman. KISS CRAZY NIGHTS DEMO TORRENT The --skip-host-cache server desktop tool. Set up custom connection, connect and different members of. Our organization with knowledge within a server designed for was a great organizations.
Itunes Apple. Retrieved 21 February India West. Rahman - The Official Site". Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 18 February Deccan Herald. Rahman's Changing Seasons — A Revival". Rahman's 'If I Rise' Video". The Wall Street Journal. Rahman lights up Khalifa Stadium". Retrieved 25 September See pics". Rahman Dubai concert date announced". Khaleej Times. This event is brought to you by Done Events. I look forward to seeing you there! Frontier India.
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Rahman Discographies of Indian artists. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Vandicholai Chinraasu. Manoj Kumar. Most Popular Foreign Soundtrack in Japan . Suresh Krishna. Shantaram Award for Best Music. Kandukondain Kandukondain. Kannathil Muthamittal. The Legend of Bhagat Singh. Warriors of Heaven and Earth. Mandarin , English , Hindi. Jyothi Krishna.
Nee Manasu Naaku Telusu. Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities. Aaytha Ezhuthu. Mangal Pandey: The Rising. Anbe Aaruyire. Kisna: The Warrior Poet. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. Azhagiya Thamizh Magan. Elizabeth: The Golden Age. With Craig Armstrong. Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na. A Way of Life. Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa. Gautham Menon. Ye Maaya Chesave.
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Untitled Love story . Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra . Imtiaz Ali . Nayla Al Khaja . Nee Manasu Naaku Telusu Telugu. Warriors of Heaven and Earth Mandarin. Dil Ne Jise Apna Kahaa! Komaram Puli Telugu. People Like Us. O Kadhal Kanmani. Muhammad: The Messenger of God Persian. Sahasam Swasaga Sagipo Telugu. Kaatru Veliyidai. Viceroy's House film. Sachin: A Billion Dreams.
Blinded by the Light. Galatta Kalyanam Tamil. Marvel TV series. Suresh Peters , Swarnalatha. Prakash Kumar. Anupama , Anuradha Sriram. Srinivas , Murtaza Khan, Qadir Khan. Clinton Cerejo , Srinivas , Shankar Mahadevan. Clinton Cerejo , Srinivas. Sunitha Sarathy , Pop Shalini. Hariharan , Alka Yagnik. Chithra , Madras Chorale Group.
Benny Dayal , Shreya Ghoshal. Alka Yagnik , Javed Ali. Slumdog Millionaire. Benny Dayal , Tanvi Shah. Blaaze , Vivian Chaix, A. Balasubrahmanyam , Khatija Rahman. Javed Ali , Mohit Chauhan. Jugni . Mohenjo Daro . Arjun Chandy , Neeti Mohan. Hockey World Cup. Arjun Chandy , Abhay Jodhpurkar. Promotional Track for Avengers: Endgame. Mani Ratnam , Dinesh Kanagaratnam.
Coke Studio Label: Sony Music. Track list Sajna - Michael Bolton feat. Rahman 1 out of 12 tracks. Musiq Limited Format: CD. Track list Jiya Se Jiya - A. Musiq Limited Format: CD, digital download. Track list Raga's Dance - instrumental 1 out of 10 tracks. Track list Maa Tujhe Salaam - A. Track list Masoom - A. Rahman 1 out of 4 tracks. Track list Nilavukku Pakkam - S.
The vulnerability of Gioll's images, produced by the direct exposure of film to the artist's surroundings, communicates an experience of a world of tremendous energetic Intensity — an intensity that Gloli's celluloid, like his eyes, can apprehend and "capture" but only at Its own peril. Such profoundly aesthetic motivations, however, coexist with ideological ones as well, and these should not be dis- counted.
Gioli insists that one of his motivations In making films without the camera technology — or using what we might call "prepared" cameras, with significant alterations to mechanical and optical components — was to avoid what he termed the consumerlst technology of the cinema: he wanted "to make free films freely. Moreover, he has Insisted on the Importance of exercising personal control over every aspect of filmmaking, including film development, editing, and printing.
This is an attitude he Inherits from earli- er avant-garde practices, and one he defends fiercely. Furthermore, Gioli does not hesitate in many of his films to express political messages — usually concerning war, social reg- imentation, and consumerism, as seen In such films as Anonimatografo , Filmarilyn , or Children The latter film's parallel montage of White House photographs of jFK holding his infant daughter Caroline on his lap intercut with the piled bodies of napalmed children in Vietnam pro- vides challenging messages regarding war and media politics, from Vietnam to Iraq.
And yet his filmmaking is not only moti- vated by such political and economic concerns. Or rather, he refuses to distinguish aesthetic exploration from the necessity of ideological renovation — he does not, like the editors of Ombre elettriche, see aesthetics "poetry" as post-revolution- ary ornamentation. Thus, even In the films like Pinhole Film in which Gioli seems to be mainly Involved in structural investigations of the medi- um and "poetic" expressions of fragile revery, Gioll's work remains animated by profound ethical concerns.
Clearly Gioli's experiments with pin-hole and prepared cameras represent a sustained reflection on the aesthetic capacities and enabling Immagini travolte dalla ruota di Duchamp Images Overwhelmed by Duchamp's Wheel , 16mm, 13'3", A homage to Duchamp and his optical experiments.
The film makes occasional use of external shutter devices, including the human hand and a bicycle wheel. Indeed, the film seems to express his desire to return to the origins — to a time before the Institutionalization of the medium as narrative entertain- ment — and thus to offer the cinema a chance for a new begin- ning, a fresh start. Indeed, ultimately Gloli's investigations cen- ter on the physical and psychological processes of perception and cognition, an examination of how we sense things not only visually , and how those things arrive through the senses of the body to be processed through language and concepts and finally to be registered In memory.
The ethical basis of Gioli's art Is found in its focus on the body and Its sensual encounter with the earth. For Gioli, the film camera locates — In the mysterious, apertured interior of the camera obscura — an analogous encounter with the earth as It registers itself onto light- sensitive materials. And this analogy between the camera and the human body — the body with its apertures and orifices, with its skin — will be the dominant leitmotif of all his films, beginning with his first gesture of pressing his pigmented body to clear celluloid.
This concern for human body and the psy- chological and physical forces that constrain it, this commit- ment to the body's sensational potential. Is what provides Gioli's work with its ethical force. Gioli's ethical and aesthetic interest in film as a surface upon which the earth imprints Its image — he speaks of the "writing" scrittura of the movie-camera — also leads to his subsequent meditations on motion and the historical development of motion pictures out of the camera obscuras of the Renaissance and various other optical devices and retinal toys of the 19th- century.
Indeed, these are the interests that will become ever more central to Gioli's work, especially after his experiments in stenopeic cinema, as seen in films such as Little Decomposed Film In this film's re-animatlon of Edweard Muybridge's sequences of social outcasts and the physically abnormal whose naked bodies are photographed against the measured grid of Muybridge's stage, Gioli combines a disturbing Foucaultian meditation on the scientific use of film technology for social engineering together with an examination of the central paradox of the cinema: the fact that there is nothing moving in motion pictures, besides the regulated flow of 1 8 to 24 frames of celluloid per second through a projector indeed, Gioli's film Perforated Operator from 1 represents one of the cineACTtON 1 5 greatest meditations on the sprocket hole ever produced.
However, Cioli's cinema takes us even further back than the creation-myth of proto-cinema — through the Thaumatropes, Phenakistoscopes and first chronophotographic devices — back towards the birthplace of photographic Images, the first posi- tive Heliographic image of a window in Joseph Niepce's studio. Niepce's image, as well as similar photographs by Fox Talbot, are In fact reprised in the opening section of Pinhole Film, enti- tled "Window. It is a wound that gives rise to the desires for visual reconciliation, and thus for marketable narrative and ideological satisfactions, that have fueled cinema since the elaboration of motion picture technol- ogy — or rather, for Gloli, since the Invention of the sprocket hole and the frameline.
Yet It Is also the source of creative Imagination and linguistic Invention — the "poetry" that emanates from the Interstices between signiflers and signifleds. It Is a splitting that is thematized, in films such as Traumatograph , through Images of lacerated bodies, bloodied noses and mouths, and the sliced eye of Bunuel's Andalusian Dog — a film, and a surrealist tradition based on a Freudian philosophy of split subjectivity, to which Gioli pays homage very frequently, as In When the Eye Trembles Moreover, lacerated consciousness is also rendered visually through the artist's frequent use of heavily layered imagery and split frames that conjoin positive and negative images of Gloli's contorted and agonized face In specular symmetry, as found in According to My Class Eye That Is, in Gloli's often fran- tically cut films, the procedures of editing and montage — including the vertical montage of collaged, optically printed film strips in Commutations with Mutation — seem ever to repeat the splitting away of human consciousness from nature, with each cut reenacting the animating wound of the alienated modern lst artist.
However, in a perhaps paradoxical fashion, Gloli's pin-hole cameras, with their film strips immedi- ately exposed to the world, express the artist's regressive desire for a clearing away of alienating consciousness and a return to an energeia of nature — to an experience of conceptually unbound phenomena — that tempts the artist with the promise of knowledge, though at the cost of oblivion. Paradoxes such as this attest to the depth of Gloli's experimentation across four decades and more than thirty films; and they suggest the extent to which Gioli inherits and reworks the legacies of the surrealist avant-gardes as well as the New American Cinema he first encountered in New York City In the late 1 s.
One of the last of the generation of filmmakers to emerge from the period of the neo-avant-gardes of the 1 s — when the Italian underground flourished, briefly. In dialogue with developments in North America — Gloli's work represents a continuation of avant-garde investigations of the aesthetic and technological materials of the medium.
The avant-garde lega- cy is clearly signified, throughout Gloli's filmography, in his fre- quent quotations from Duchamp, Vertov, Eisenstein, Richter and Bunuel. What he inherits from such artists, and the move- ments they were associated with, is an engagement with the structural aspects of the cinema and with the psychology of visual perception studied against the development of photo- graphic technologies since the 19th Century.
And as the recent increase in attention dedicated to him at cin- ematheques In Madison, Toronto, New York, Paris, and Hong Kong would indicate, Gioli is rapidly being recognized as one of the most important experimental filmmakers working in Europe since the s, and It is arguable that he is the most significant experimentalist working in Italy today. Indeed, a retrospective of Gloli's work will feature at the Pesaro Film Festival In June of , where Gioli also plans to premier his most recent productions.
Ever refusing to divorce poetics from ideology — and stubbornly insisting on a "do it yourself" cre- ative autonomy that Is exemplary in its resistance to any fetlshizatlon of technology — Gioli makes art in which aesthetic experimentation might be a prelude to psychological and ide- ological renovation.
To that extent, each of his films — though none more than his pinhole films — express a desire for a new beginning, a fresh start, both for filmmaking and for sense per- ception. And perhaps this, most of all, is the task of avant- garde and experimental film artists from Futurism to today: to make films that take spectators to the very edge of human understanding, to the very limits of their own selves, where they can open their eyes, perhaps, and see what is there.
Notes 1 For his dltenlion to early Futurist film experiments and an excellent survey of European avant-garde filmmaking, see Antonio Bisaccia, Punctum lu- ens. Comunicazione estetica e movimento tra cinema e arte nelle avanguardie storiche Rome: Meltemi, Caramel and A. Madesani, eds. Milan: II Castoro, Pecci, Costantini, S. Fuso, S. Mescola, I. Zannier Florence: Fratelli Alinari, They consider their condition a mistake of nature, a congenital anomaly.
The medical term for transsex- ualism is ''Gender Identity Disorder. Sherman Leis, Philadelphia sex-reassignment specialist In an early scene from Duncan Tucker's Transamerica , Bree Osborne, a physiological male about to undergo sex- reassignment surgery, walks along a white picket fence and joins a group of people waiting at a bus stop.
Amid muffled Spanish conversations, a man reads a Spanish-language news- paper. A sign in the background reads: "Immigration Forms. Perhaps because the very concept of transsex ualism invites metaphor, shatters boundaries, and complicates polari- ties, each of these films— even the most exploitive among them — Invites the audience to associate transsexualism with other kinds of boundaries and intersections and raises fundamental questions that the filmmaker may or may not have Intended.
What do we believe about gender and In a Year of Thirteen Moons sexuality? How do our convictions about gender reflect and sus- tain other convictions and even world views? What is natural? What is normal? What are our limits? Our personal borders? And what does it mean to switch from one gender to another?
Is transsexualism a matter of correcting a genetic error when a person is— as many characters in these films ipsisl — born into the wrong body? Drawing inevitable compar- isons to racial and ethnic minorities, transsexualism asks us to consider what it means to attempt to "pass. In others, the character's purpose is precisely not to pass, but rather to remain on stage in a perpetual performance. It's not surprising that transsexualism became a subject in films long before it had a name or a place in the cultural dia- logue.
Movies are the vanguard. They nudge into the open what is mumbling around in the cultural underbrush. They are the artifacts of our attitudes, fears, and preoccupations. Movies with transsexual characters not only provide a documentary history of changing attitudes toward transsexualism, but also illuminate a gradual shift toward less polarized, more inclusive thinking about gender and sexuality in general.
It's no coinci- dence that such movies as Transamerica and the HBO drama. Yet, despite their progression toward empathy and realism, cinematic portrayals of transsexuality, even most recent examples, do more to depict the fear and hatred surrounding gender transgression than to cast doubt on mainstream clarities and interrogate the binary gender system. Although many aspects of transsexualism remain controver- sial, and knowledge is still at a developmental stage, this is changing rapidly.
Most current thinking has shifted from a genital and upbringing theory of gender identity to a neurobi- ological developmental theory. According to gender-reassign- ment surgeon Dr. Thus, as many of these individuals — both real and celluloid insist, a transsexual is literally, physically, a gendered consciousness trapped in a body of the opposite sex. V is not an act of sex at all. It is a passionate, lifelong, ineradicable conviction, and no true transsexual has ever been disabused of it.
A seemingly stable theme becomes fluid, construct- ed, unstable. In most of the more recent films focused on transsexuality, backdrop images that situate the story within a larger cultural context embody this complicating process at work in the filmmaker's mind.
In an early scene from Transamerica, the transsexual character Bree straightens a 18 cineACTiON Transamerica framed photo of three people standing before a cluster of grass huts. The image freezes for a moment, and we see that the group consists of a white man dressed in a broad-brimmed colonial-style hat and safari suit, flanked by two black women, their necks elongated by coiled brass necklaces. The Crying Came begins with a black man and a white woman walking by a bridge.
Images of security bars, glass walls, masks, and human skin underscore the border transgression theme in The Silence of the Lambs Hedwig and the Angry Inch is interspliced with images of the Berlin Wall and with cartoons of spheres dividing like amoebas and reconnecting, to evoke Plato's parable of an original unisex being.
A narrative of transsexualism Inevitably becomes — directly or Indirectly — a story about other boundaries and taboos, and ultimately about the fundamental binary construction of Western thought. Whether exploring or exploiting transsexualism, whether reaf- firming or questioning fundamental assumptions about gender identity, each of the films I now turn to taps into anxieties sur- rounding sex and gender, but also evokes broader themes and renders cultural commentary.
Before the nineties, when such feature films as The Crying Game and All About My Mother overtly challenged tra- ditional views on gender and sexuality, depictions of transsex- ualism in film were primarily containment narratives, serving to ease audience anxiety about fluid gender categories by reaf- firming the traditional boundaries. If films flush out new Ideas lurking in the cultural underbrush, they also reveal what we're stuck on: they provide a mechanism for working out accept- able explanations for the Inexplicable.
Celluloid transsexual characters tend to fit into predictable and reductive categories and can be defined in response to one or more of the follow- ing questions: Does the character embody human suffering or function as a social joke? Is the transgender figure a compas- sionate dispenser of wisdom or a lonely freak, a person of frus- trated sexual identity or a dangerous killer? Most of these films, by depicting the consequences of crossing borders, reassure audiences that reliable boundaries persist, that there Is a "nor- mal," outside of which lies terra incognita.
Transvestism has a long history in film, reaching back to the silent era and consisting largely of drag representations that rein- forced conventional notions of gender. Transsexual characters, who began appearing in movies only in the early fifties, were more troublesome. They were freaks In a clinical sense. They resisted reform. They forced us to confront their murky sexuality, challenging our most essential polarities. Not surprisingly, films offered up reassuring stereotypical explanations for the unset- tling reality, confining transsexuals to roles as freaks and jokes.
Wood's Glen or Glenda I Changed My Sex 1 combines two narratives, one about a transvestite, the other about a transsexual. Bela Lugosi, playing an ominous figure reminiscent of the Dracula character he made famous, pops up between scenes delivering screwball pleas for tolerance: "What are little boys made of?
Is it puppy dog tails? Big fat snails? Or maybe brassieres! The biography describes a transsexual character, Bunny Breckenridge, who's played for laughs by Bill Murray and conforms to the cinematic conven- tion of the transsexual as joke, a sleazy, decades-long parade that includes Bunny's namesake, Myra Breckenridge In john Water's Desperate Living , female-to-male transsexual Mole McHenry kidnaps a surgeon, demands a sex change, and reappears with a salami- like appendage that she hopes will please her ditzy, blonde girlfriend.
When It is rejected. Mole cuts off the penis and feeds it to a German shepherd. Films have also exorcised potentially unnerving realities by isolating transsexuals and presenting them as lonely freaks. Such caricatures, while providing humor and distance, have sometimes been poignantly drawn, as was the case with the aging transsexual showgirl Bernadette, played by a mournful- faced Terrance Stamp in The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert The contrast between transsexual Bernadette and the younger, flashier transvestites is worth not- ing.
Whereas the transvestites' celluloid progenitors include rascally cross-dressers In slapstick films, such as Charlie Chaplin's The Perfect Lady 1 91 5 and Billy Wilder's Some Like it Hot , there's a somberness to Bernadette that also infus- es other transsexual characters from the tragicomic Roberta in The World According to Carp to the melancholy joanne in Robert Altman's Come Bock to the Five and Dime jimmy Dean, jimmy Dean In these films, the lonely transsexual becomes a magnet for other lonely people, giving rise to the convention of male-to-female transsexual as mother confessor, a role perhaps most highly refined by the character of Mrs.
Madrigal who presides over a gallery of San Francisco bohemi- ans in the television miniseries Tales of the City , , , based on the novels of Armistad Maupin. Like Bernadette in "Priscilla," Mrs. Madrigal is sadder but wiser than the assorted misfits who gather around her. In her 1 mem- oir, Conundrum, jan Morris speaks of her privileged role as one who has viewed the world through the lenses of both sexes.
She invokes the Classical archetypes of Tiresias, the bi-gen- dered sage, and Minerva, Greek goddess of wisdom whose symbol, the owl, can turn its neck degrees and see in all directions. Similarly, in "Priscilla," Bernadette is depicted as having traveled farther than have her two transvestite companions, but here the emphasis is on following a path of no return since gender-reas- signment surgery has also Involved severing ties to families and former lives.
As Bernadette confides: "My parents never spoke to me again after I had the chop. Dressed to Kill features Michael Caine as mad psychiatrist Dr. Elliot, denied surgery and locked in a llfe-or-death struggle with the female trapped inside him. When a woman arouses the doctor, his female alter-ego slashes her to death with a razor. This char- acter prefigures Buffalo Bill, the serial killer in Silence of the Lambs.
Also denied sex-change surgery, "Billy" settles for stitching together "a woman suit" from the skins of size 14 women. Hannibal Lecter, the cannibal psychiatrist, not only Invades people's heads. He also eats people. Now Imprisoned, Lecter enacts his perverse fan- tasies through walls and bars and cages, with Billy, his former psychiatric patient, as his Mr. Hyde-like agent. The film declares its anxieties about transsexualism in surprisingly overt ways, writes judith Halberstam.
She views the skin of Billy's female vic- tims, in which he clothes himself, as a metaphor for the out- ward appearance that traditionally signifies gender, explaining that Billy literally rips apart the "heterosexual construction of human, natural, the interiorlty of gender. Suicide is the cinematic fate of choice for the male-to- female transsexual who doesn't become a psychopathic killer.
Dog Day Afternoon , In which Al Pacino tries to rob a bank to finance his male wife's sex change operation, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder's In a Year of 1 3 Moons 1 feature transsexual characters whose suicides amount to self-per- formed exorcisms of a dangerous social aberration. Like Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, In a Year of 13 Moons character- izes the post-surgical transsexual character as having traversed a one-way bridge, but In Fassbinder's film, the tragedy is deep- ened by the admission that surgery was a blunder.
This relent- lessly pessimistic film, which evokes the ongoing suppression of difference in Fassbinder's post-war Germany, chronicles the life of Elvira Weishaupt, born Erwin. Despite having undergone a sex change to please her lover, Elvira was again rejected. Now she wanders through the slaughterhouse where Erwin once worked, recounting her history while surrounded by meat-hooked carcasses whose blood rains onto the floor.
Eventually, Elvira participates in the purgation of the abnormal in Post-Nazi Germany when she commits suicide. In a Year of 13 Moons is one of the grimmest movies imag- inable, perhaps because the tragedy, in this instance, derives from the filmmaker's personal experience. Fassbinder directed this film shortly after his male lover had committed suicide.
The filmmaker uses the torment of a transsexual character not only to stand for the kinds of horrors that had been perpetrat- ed in Nazi Germany, but also as a metaphor for his own loss and possibly for his guilt. Fatalism suffuses the film. Elvira can't change back into a man and laments the surgery; Fassbinder can't recover his lover. Here, transsexualism is used as a metaphor for intolerance, loss, and an irreversible fatal decision. A carnival scene by a bridge at the film's beginning evokes its preoccupation with borders and cross- ings.
When ody, an English soldier serving In Ireland, is cap- tured at the carnival and held hostage by IRA terrorists, he remarks on the Irony of his position as a black man represent- ing a racist country. Before he is killed, ody petitions one of his captors, Fergus, to look after his girlfriend. Deserting the IRA, Fergus crosses political, racial and gender borders to fall in love with Jody's girl, Dil, a stunning, light-skinned black woman who turns out to be anatomically male.
Dil "fools" not only heterosexual Fergus but the audience as well. She appears to be a blend of races and genders; her presence confuses and questions ail political, racial, and gender identities in the film. Although The Crying Came is, among other things, a plea for tolerance, at the time of its release, its message was some- what eclipsed by audience reaction to the infamous scene where Fergus discovers Dil's penis, runs to the bathroom and vomits. A public whispering campaign urged people not to give up the movie's secret.
But, according to Kate Bornstein, "'Don't say a word' means more than just "don't spoil the movie. The film portrays Hedwig, "a slip of a girlyboy" from communist East Berlin, who becomes the victim of a botched surgery that leaves her a freak with an inch-long stump, as simultaneously a joke, a tragic fig- ure, and an occasion for metaphor and social critique.
Born in Berlin when it was divided by the Wall, Hansel, a young white man, crosses multiple borders when he undergoes the incom- plete surgery and, as Hedwig, marries a black American soldier and moves to a trailer park in Kansas. Abandoned by her hus- band, Hedwig forms a rock band and becomes mentor and lover to a young musician.
Tommy Gnossis. Tommy's name, with its allusion to wisdom, signals that Hedwig has embarked on a journey of enlightenment and that we've entered the land of metaphor. Tommy eventually steals Hedwig's songs and abandons her when he discovers her mutilated condition. Surrounded by her loyal band of misfits, for whom she serves as a Mrs.
Madrigal or Bernadette-like den mother, Hedwig belts out her tragic tale to uncomprehending cus- tomers in restaurant salad bars. The "straight" audience as naive or judgmental participant in the story is a trope that weaves through a number of transgender-themed films from non-straight directors, including Ed Wood, the cross-dressing cineACTiON 21 director of Glen or Glendo and "'Hedwig" director John Cameron Mitchell, who Is gay.
This portrayal of the naive audi- ence Is a wink, no doubt, to those in the know, but also a reminder of the spectator's implication In the transsexual char- acter's problems. Spliced into the tragicomedy- musical are images of walls and brutality, including flashes of Hedwig's traumatic childhood in Berlin. Split in two, the broken halves of the car- toon spheres perpetually search for each other, just as Hedwig searches for her other half In the form of a lover. By the end of the film, Hedwig learns that she will eventu- ally find her other half, though not in the way she expected, in the person of a lover.
She must look within herself to become complete. Reversing Plato's parable, borders will melt away. Male and female will again become one. Transsexualism Insists that gender is not black-and-white. Rather, it involves an entire spectrum of grays that we're only beginning to acknowledge in Western cultures, and we're acknowledging it first in the movies. Characters include a lesbian, a transvestite, a transsexual, and a heterosexual living together In harmony.
Unlike the films in which transsexualism is used to explore vari- eties of intolerance. All About My Mother is a study of female community and tolerance. The enterprise of several post-millennium movies. Including All About My Mother, has been to move beyond the chop and to convert transsexualism Into a metaphor for the human con- dition, presenting characters engaged in the universal human quest for wholeness, self-realization, and understanding.
The earlier stories were of people on their own, bereft of family and relationships. The HBO movie. As the story unfolds, this film explores transsexualism within a mainstream context. In this regard. Normal proclaims that what has been for decades a rivulet off the mainstream is In actuality a major trib- utary.
Human beings inhabit a spectrum of gender Identities. Echoing this message, a transsexual character in Transamerica notes, "We walk among you," while the film also implies that, "We defy categorization. Its heroine, too, continually subverts expectations and defies classification. Bree is simultaneously an extravagant parody and a vulnerable, sympathetic human being who stands almost alone among these films as a non- threatening cinematic transsexual.
Unlike the flamboyant Bernadette in "Priscilla," Bree is stuffy, conservative, and dress- es like a librarian. Far from exhibiting the socially defiant atti- tude of Hedwig, Bree is indecisive and overwhelmed by con- flicting social messages. Prudish and naive, she's shocked by her son's drug use and by his sexually abusive stepfather. The result of these continual reversals is to complicate Bree's char- acter, drawing the audience Into the problems of a flesh-and- blood transsexual trying to survive in contemporary America.
Underscoring this humanizing process and linking transsex- ualism to broader themes are the film's background images. Photographic scenes from Colonial Africa, juxtaposed photos of white American and black African beauty Ideals, and glimpses of unassimilated Mexican immigrants evoke the bina- ry thinking from which Bree's problems flow.
Meanwhile, Zulu, Inca, and American Country Western music on the movie's soundtrack, pulses against the forces of cultural, racial, and gender partition and argues for more inclusive thinking. Reductive and literal readings of transsexualism have gener- ated decades of films preoccupied with "the chop," and most of the recent examples still do a better job of tapping Into fears and depicting cultural anxieties than of challenging the binary gender system.
Still, if films like Normal and Transsamerica are an Indication of the future, transsexual characters will no longer be treated exclusively as jokes or shock devices. Evolving attitudes toward gender and sexuality are bubbling to the surface and breaking through In the movies, where trans- sexualism is slowly being recognized as a subject abundant in human and symbolic complexity.
Carolyn Kraus, a University of Michigan Ph. Notes 1 Leis, Dr. Telephone interview. New York: Harcourt, , p. A Personal Autobiography. San Francisco: Cleis Press, , p. Edward B. Screen Classics, Inc. Vested Interests: cross-dressing and cultural anxiety. New York: Routledge, , p. Duncan Tucker. Belladonna Productions. Stephan Elliot. New York: Routledge, , pp. John Cameron Mitchell. Killer Films. The term I often use to describe this effect is 'gore-porno,' where the true impact of horror is drained away and the motive for these movies becomes just a way of fast-forwarding from one death to the next.
Lions Gate Films, to the forefront of American horror film production, he would see his criticisms of films that depict violent content In a pornographic manner used to describe not only his own work, but also the entire wave of 21st century horror of which he was a part. When Roth's second film.
Though the film met with the negative reaction that many critics reserve for horror films. Hostel's reception was atypically scathing. Reviewing Hostel for The Village Voice, Mark Holcomb writes, "The film is too casually misanthropic and enamored of its expulsive prosthetic virtuosity to be politically relevant, and it's not clear what response — shame?
In an even more venomous review for The New York Times, Nathan Lee writes, "The calculated outrages of Eli Roth's brutal exploitation film prove less shocking than its relentless bigotry. As Edelstein writes, "Torture movies cut deeper than mere gory spectacle. Unlike the old seventies and eighties hack-'em-ups or their jokey remakes, like Scream , in which masked maniacs punished nubile teens for promiscuity the spurt of blood was equivalent to the money shot in porn , the victims here are neither interchangeable nor expendable.
In the year and a half between the release of Hostel and its sequel Hostel: Port II — a continuation of the first film that substitutes female protagonists for the original's male leads and includes the perspectives of two of the hostel's clients — torture porn became the epithet du jour for the sub- genre of horror Roth helped create.
In her analysis of torture's role in Ancient Greece, Page duBols acknowledges that torture has served a prominent role in a multitude of societies throughout history. However, as duBois writes: I also refuse to adopt the moral stance of those who pretend that torture Is the work of "others," that it belongs to the third world, that we can condemn it from afar. Rather than place films deemed torture porn in dialogue with current events, the moniker attempts to isolate the subgenre and endow it with a sense of otherness that works outside the con- fines of socially acceptable and responsible culture, a position- ing that allows critics to dismiss its meaning and separate it from the production of the American cultural metanarrative.
Through this semantic tension between critical opinion and artistic intent apparent in the reaction to the Hostel franchise, a battle over the power of cultural control emerges that echoes the analysis of torture, discipline, and punishment undertaken by Michel Foucault. Roth's decentralized presentation of power Is even more applicable in the era of globalization that, accord- ing to Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, has witnessed a shift from an imperialism based on national sovereignty to an Empire now governed by the circulation of power among multinational corporate entities that appear to act as "a unitary power that maintains the social peace and produces its ethical truths.
In engaging with this host of circulating power dynamics, Roth directly addresses America's power within the framework of the contemporary globalized world: the power of American capitalism's influence on former Soviet-block countries in the postwar era, the power of the male gaze Inter- acting with the female body both onscreen and In audience reaction, the power of torture imagery in a climate marked by discourse on torture, the power of the critic employed by a multinational media corporation to culturally situate a film.
Using images of bodily torture, Roth forces his audience to question its own positionality and acquisition of knowledge in a society where visual mass media Images serve as primary communication tools to instruct and circulate power. In this essay, I argue that rather than act simply as torture porn, Roth's Hostel and Hostel: Part II employ the conventions of the horror genre to comment not only on the lingering effects of Cold-War era American nationalism after the fall of the Soviet Union but also on the commodification of the human body In a post-Cold War economy marked by global- ized trade.
Throughout both films, Roth depicts Slovakia as a nation struggling to locate itself within the global economy as a result of the tensions between Its past associations with the U. However, Roth's depictions of Slovakia occur primarily through the Interactions of his American characters with Slovakian natives, a choice that allows Roth to criticize the narrow scope of American nationalism in an international context.
As the films' American protagonists become commodities that the hostel sells on the global market, Roth creates an amalgama- tion of capitalism and bodily atrocities that forces his audience to question both America's and its own role in the film's exhi- bition of capitalistic violence. Men, Women, and Chain Saws, Carol Clover writes of the urbanoia film, a horror subgenre that features a move from the metropolitan and sub- urban codes of law into the realm of the unmediated country.
As Clover states, "Going from the city to the country in the horror film Is in any case very much like going from village to deep, dark forest in traditional fairy tales. While critics such as Lee place the Hostel films firmly in the urbanoia tradition, the narrative world Roth creates demonstrates several pro- nounced deviations from Clover and Lee's use of the term. Rather, they travel from American suburbs — as a result of their economic mobility — to a foreign nation with a com- plex hierarchy of laws and regulations forged from the Interac- tions of the fallen Soviet state and the globalized market econ- omy.
Yet, the lack of verisimili- tude that some critics perceive as bigotry allows Roth to criti- cize the xenophobia and nationalism of his films' protagonists, leaving them to survive in a foreign world informed only by the American capitalist ideology responsible in part for the tumul- tuous history of Slovakia.
Equipped with this seemingly superficial view of Slovakia's history and culture, Roth also uses the film's historical survey of torture methods to position the nation In a way that echoes Hardt and Negri's analysis of Empire's appropriation of nation- al history: "Empire exhausts historical time, suspends history, and summons the past and future within Its own ethical order. In other words. Empire presents its order as permanent, eter- nal, and necessary.
Though the rudiments of present-day Slovakia began after the Velvet Revolution that overthrew communist rule in 1 , the country experienced a cycle of dependence on dom- inant European political ideologies throughout the 20th centu- ry. As Grigorij Meseznikov writes of the identity crises for- mer Soviet-block countries have faced since the end of the Cold War: "During the brief period of the post-communist transition, the internal character of political parties and move- ments — especially the development of an ideological profile— has played a significant role In the general process of societal transformation.
However, despite the cogent identity Slovakia fostered at the end of the 20th century, the nation now faces the conquering ideology of globalized corporate Empire In direct opposition to its former fascist and communist ties. Forced to forge Its national identity while contending with the encroachment of the Empire of global capitalism, Slovakia embodies a nation steeped in both the past and present as It attempts to navigate its future.
In his discussion of the state of Marxism after the fall of the Soviet Union, jacques Derrida also makes claims concerning suspended history's relation to contemporary politics that can be applied to Roth's depiction of Slovakia. Characterizing Marxist ideology in terms of spectrality and hauntology that collapse the past, present, and future without distinction, Derrida writes: The ghostly would displace itself like the move- ment of this history.
Haunting would mark the very existence of Europe. It would open the space and the relation to self of what is called by this name, at least since the Middle Ages. The experi- ence of the specter, that is how Marx, along with Engels, will have also thought, described, or diag- nosed a certain dramaturgy of modern Europe, notably that of its great unifying projects. Derrida's claims have particular significance for nations such as Slovakia as they forego communist ideology for active participation In global- ized capitalism.
Reflecting both Hardt and Negri's view of Empire's suspen- sion of time and Derrida's ideas of spectrality, Roth presents Slovakia as a nation that collects the violent precipitates of Europe's great unifying projects without regard for time or his- tory. Within this timeless construction of Slovakia, Roth posi- tions Elite Hunting's torture compound as an echo of the nation's violence that has endured despite constant political shifts.
Upon entering Slovakia in Hostel, American tourists and future Elite Hunting victims Paxton jay Hernandez and josh Derek Richardson gaze at the working smokestack of an enor- mous factory facility from the window of their cab.
Later in the film when Elite Hunting siren Natalya Barbara Nedeljakova lures Paxton to the facility while he searches for the missing josh, Paxton learns that the building is not a factory, but the front for Elite Hunting's labyrinth of torture rooms where clients pay to kill.
As a group of Elite Hunting employees drags Paxton to his torture chamber, Roth integrates a series of sub- jective shots of the torture rooms, revealing Elite Hunting's clients torturing victims in various manners: dissection with medical tools, laceration with a medieval dagger, drawing and quartering, castration, and whipping.
With Paxton bound in his torture room, Roth cuts to a large table featuring a variety of torture weapons, including an army-issue pistol, a spiked bat, chainsaws, and power tools. Through depicting the vari- ety of torture available to clients, Roth constructs a culture of torture that places methods from various historical periods on equal terms within Elite Hunting's market of death, referencing forms of torture from the Middle Ages to Nazi medical experi- ments and contemporary military executions.
Yet, the film's depictions of torture go far beyond violent pastiche, exempli- fying a timeless quality as commodities on the global market that curtail ethical progress, a fact Roth underscores when upon Paxton's escape, the film reveals that the building's smokestack is actually part of a crematorium similar to those used during the period the Nazis controlled Slovakia. Roth further accents the suspended history of his depiction of Slovakia through his presentation of the nation's tourism Industry.
Similarly, much of Hostel: Part ll's exposition occurs at a harvest festival that features residents wearing executioners' robes, bonfires that resemble funeral pyres, and puppet shows reenacting tor- ture with axes. During the film's climax, Roth cuts to a holding chamber inside Elite Hunting's compound as rows of torture victims await processing, a scene that ties the earlier harvest Imagery with the human harvest integral to Elite Hunting's global economic prowess.
Through binding past images of tor- ture and harvest with Elite Hunting's torture-for-profit sensibil- ities, Roth equalizes the cultures of violence from the past and present, exhibiting a depravity that has endured numerous shifts in political ideology. Yet, Roth extends his discussion of enduring cultures of vio- lence past his spectral presentation of Slovakia, exposing the Inherent naivete of American hegemony through the actions of his American characters.
As a result, Roth's presentation of Slovakia's timeless violence works in dialogue with the domi- nance of American culture in the global market, creating an atmosphere that disturbs the relationship between the two nations.
In constructing the first act of Hostel as a teen sex comedy, Roth demonstrates the hubris and brazen con- sumerism of American culture responsible for Paxton and josh's status as postgraduate. Eurotripping hedonists. When josh expresses his reticence to stay in Slovakia after Oil's disap- pearance, Paxton responds by saying: "When I'm studying for the bar, and you're writing your thesis, this is the shit we're going to think about.
I've got rights. Instead, the trip is merely another commodity, the last bastion of free- dom for two young men before becoming imbued within an 26 cineACTiON Hostel: Part II increasingly globalized American economy like the parents who funded their excursion. Though more sympathetic and polite than their male coun- terparts, the female protagonists of Hostel: Port II exhibit simi- lar senses of entitlement.
Deciding to spend the weekend in Prague on a whim, Beth — the heir to a multimillion-dollar fortune — calls her father to tell him not to reserve a room at the Four Seasons for her and her friends because "college kids don't stay at the Four Seasons. Roth establishes this importance of commodity as early as the opening title sequence that features a close-up of Lorna's purse as an Elite Hunting employee steals her cash and I-Pod before Incinerat- ing all traces of her actual identity, allowing Roth to define her solely through commodities before he even Introduces her character.
Unlike Paxton and Josh's search for refuge before their official induction into the American capitalist system, the girls' encounter with Europe never places their trip outside the context of the market of exchange. They are American con- sumers, using their economic prowess to purchase internation- al experience, a factor that highlights the continuing relation- ship between American capitalism and globalized corporate Empire.
Building on his criticisms of American capitalism's hubris, Roth also constructs his characters as individuals ignorant of international affairs and cultures, a deficiency that ultimately shatters their comfort and myths of isolation. Through his focus on postgraduates and college students, Roth taps into the notions of well-rounded and diverse education fundamen- tal to American capitalism. However, once his characters reach Europe, they not only demonstrate ignorance about Interna- tional affairs but also consistently deride Slovakian culture.
When Paxton and josh discuss their quest for European girls with undercover Elite Hunting agent Alex Lubomir Bukovy at a hostel in Amsterdam, he shows them a series of digital pho- tos of himself cavorting with several nude Slovakian women, ultimately convincing the boys to make the journey with a sin- gle comment: "They hear your accent, they fuck you. There's so much pussy there, and because of the war, there are no guys.
Working from their limited knowledge of Eastern and Central Europe, they seemingly conflate Slovakia with Images of Kosovo and Bosnia as they exchange grins while Alex says the line that ends the scene: "You just take them. No longer simply searching for just a good time, Paxton and josh install themselves as pillagers who plan to reap the spoils of a war, unconcerned with either the ramifications of war on the country or the role of their own country in the conflict.
They simply do not care, ready to honor the benefits of their American status. While continuing to depict the females of Hostel: Part II far more sympathetically than their male counterparts from the first film, Roth uses their limited international scope to refine his satirical depiction of the hubris of American nationalism.
Wasn't there, like, a war there? Too Eastern Bloc? Through the exhibition of his characters' igno- rance, Roth distinguishes his film from Clover's ideas of urbanoia horror. They are under the aegis of American nationalism and willfully Ignorant of the cultural world around them, a false sense of security that has deadly consequences.
In contrast to the connotations of the torture porn label, Roth's portrayals of his characters as Individuals caught up in the arrogance of American nationalism and capitalism make cineACTiON 27 them far more dynamic individuals than the anonymous and undeveloped characters of pornography and violent exploita- tion cinema.
As a result, their torture has ideological ramifica- tions concerning America's interaction with the globalized world similar to the political uses of torture prominent in 18th and 19th century Europe. In Discipline and Punish, Foucault dis- cusses three criteria that punishment must obey in order to be considered torture: 1.
It must demonstrate a degree of pain that is "measured exactly, or at least calculated, compared and hierarchized," 2. It must show a correlation between "the quality, intensity, duration of the pain, with the gravity of the crime, the person of the criminal, the rank of his victims," 3.
It must form part of a ritual that "must mark the victim. For Foucault, the idea of torture remains rooted In the laws and mediated punishment that defined the governing bodies of Europe, an example he uses to introduce his greater thesis of the ubiquitous presence of power.
In the tradition of Foucault's larger project, Roth has dislodged the Idea of torture from the context of European politics, demonstrating how it interacts with the circulation of power in his films. The circuit- ry becomes defined in the Hostel franchise not by the official government, but by Elite Hunting's interaction with global market forces.
Through the combination of the film's exhibition of Its characters' behavior with the revelation of Americans' high market value on the torture market, Roth asserts the demand for American torture victims as a form of punishment mediated both by Slovakian Industry and— in the case of the first film— the foreign business professionals who engage in the torture of American tourists to mark them for their worldview. For Roth, the torture of the film does not act as pornography, but a glimpse Into the overlooked specters that manifest when post-Cold War nationalism and the forces of the globalized market collide with American cultural perspectives.
Gendered Power and the Body as Commodity Though the horror film is particularly suited for Roth's discus- sion of torture in contemporary society, it also forces him to navigate the genre's problematic gender tensions. Critics such as Clover argue that gender depictions In horror films create a disparity in which female characters assume the role of victim and only those characters who are "masculine in dress and behavior" triumph over the traditionally male monster in the narrative.
Embracing horror's transgres- sive potential, Roth focuses on bodily torture as a way to com- ment on gender's role in organizing the power structure that governs Elite Hunting's position within the globalized econo- my. In the Hostel franchise, gender play and performance serve as the primary channels through which power circulates, reflecting Foucault's definition of power as: "The multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization; as the process which, through ceaseless struggles and confrontations, trans- forms, strengthens, or reverses them.
While Hostel's male protagonists place it outside of Clover's criticism, the manner in which Roth constructs his female char- acters as sexual objects appears problematic as evidenced by the host of critics who accused the film of misogyny upon Its release. Roth commodifies the female body throughout, pre- senting it as a fetishized object over which Paxton and Josh assert their superiority.
Numerous shots of topless and nude women catering to Paxton and josh's every whim dominate the first act as the duo travels to brothels and bars and refers to the relative ease of exchanging sex for money in Europe, a presentation of the female body's commodification Roth con- tinues once the boys reach Slovakia. After discovering the hos- tel's coed rooming policy, Paxton, josh, and Oli enter their room to find Natalya and Svetlana jana Kaderabkova prepar- ing to visit the hostel's spa as they greet the boys: "We're going to spa.
You should come. However, Roth does not allow his protagonists to revel In their male gaze for long. When josh goes missing, Paxton returns to the hostel to find that the staff cleared the room under the assumption that both boys were captured. Paxton receives a key and opens the door to his new room, revealing two new female Eastern European roommates who repeat Natalya and Svetlana's earlier words — "We're going to spa.
You should come"— a reiteration that resonates for Paxton and finally alerts him to his dangerous situation: the women are all employees of Elite Hunting and harness their sexuality to lure him and other victims into a trap. Throughout the Interactions between his protagonists and Elite Hunting's sirens-for-hire, Roth highlights the effectiveness of gender as a tool to shift power.
As a result of their commod- ification of the female body, Paxton and josh become trapped by a market force that turns their own bodies into commodi- ties sold on the global market. The gender play with which the films engage demonstrates judith Butler's constructions of the relationship between the subject and the law.
As Butler writes: "Here the performative, the call by the law which seeks to pro- duce a lawful subject, produces a set of consequences that exceed and compound what appears to be the disciplining Intention of the law. Yet, in the reiteration of their performances, the female Elite Hunting employees subvert gender, producing consequences that dis- rupt the behavior structure. Roth's use of performativity is twofold: the females engage in the performances that construct their gender roles while simultaneously engaging in literal per- formances that use constructions of gender to lure Elite Hunting's future victims.
However, while such subversion allows the women to assert power over the male characters, their reit- erations remain in the service of their employer, a business that itself is beholden to the forces of the globalized economy.
Roth continues to discuss power's relationship to masculin- ity through the transition Paxton undergoes during the film. Mistaking Paxton for a fellow client, the American initiates a conversation: I've been all over the world. You know. I've been everywhere and the bottom line is: Pussy is pussy.
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