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Leopoldo Ferri included in his collection a set of later works by the countess Maria Isabella Dosi-Grati, who wrote seven comical works in Bolognese dialect under the pseudonym of Dorigista, such as Le fortune non conosciute del dottore. Commedia Bologna: Sarti, ; Il padre accorto della figlia prudente. There were exceptions, of course.

Arnaldi and Pastore Stocchi, n Traveling in Italy in , Charles de Montesquieu noticed that male stu- dents dressed as women performed on the Roman stage, but that tragedies in Jesuit theaters used women rather than men to play female parts—not for the sake of verisimilitude, as we might infer, but as a response to moralistic concerns.

See Viaggio in Italia, ed. Bergalli also published musical dramas, such as Agide, re di Sparta. Interest in tragedies was lively then and some women writers translated French tragedies, such as Bergalli and Manzoni Giusti as well as Elisabetta Caminer Turra, who directed on Venetian stages the plays she translated. Maria Fortuna, Zaffira. Tragedia Livorno: Falorni, The information was compiled following the list of Ferri in Biblio- teca femminile italiana, and it is by no means complete for the eighteenth century.

Giancarlo Garfagnini et al. Florence: Olschki, —83 , In permitting onstage young maidens and honest women who are forbidden from comedy, they give a voice to the noblest of affections, not to be dis- dained by tragedy itself. A later writer is Isabella Coreglia, perhaps a singer native of Lucca, who produced La Dori, favola pescatoria , and Erindo il fido, favola pastorale Angelo Ingegneri, Della poesia rappresentativa e del modo di rappresentare le favole sce- niche, ed.

Maria Luisa Doglio Modena: Panini, , 7. Julie D. For a modern edition, see Flori: A Pastoral Drama, ed. Virginia Cox and Lisa Sampson, trans. Isabella Coreglia, La Dori. See also Bibliografia universale del teatro drammatico italiano con particolare riguardo alla storia della musica italiana, ed. Issandro eventually saves the nymph Tirenia from a sadistic satyr and falls in love with her, while Alliseo, who dejectedly tries to commit suicide, is convinced to marry a friend of Venenia, Fulgentia.

Brian Rich- ardson et al. Leeds: Society for Italian Studies, , 99— Sampson thinks that Torelli may have had her Partenia recited in front of members of the Accademia degli Innominati in Parma. Scritti in onore di Michel Plaisance, ed. Giuditta Isotti Rosowsky et al. Florence: Cesari Editore, , — Torquato Tasso, Aminta, ed. Luigi Fasso, 3rd ed. Florence: Sansoni, In jest, she trims his beard and cuts one of his horns; thus by figuratively castrating him, she ef- fectively reverses the traditional active and passive cultural roles of male and female.

Unlike Tasso, who showed a penchant for portraying damsels in distress vic- timized by male predators, Miani emphasizes the subversive qualities and ingenuity of her nymphs, giving them more agency even at the cost of making their characterizations dull by limiting drastically their love interests. Venenia, as will also be the case with princess Celinda, is a good exam- ple of faith and female constancy: she entertains only chaste feelings for the priest Lucrino, and is rewarded at the end with the return of her wayward husband.

To me this reference rings more like the Petrarchan rhetorical figure of captatio benevolentiae, an attempt to seek sympathy from a potential supporter. As Bolzetta wrote to the dedicatee of Amorosa speranza, the noblewoman Marietta Uberti Descalzi, on April 4, , in a lengthy and revealing foreword, some men will never give a fair reading to a book published by a woman. Examples of this behavior on the part of women men also are often faithful in the hands of women writers appear throughout the literature written by women.

Valeria Finucci, trans. Girolamo Arnaldi and Gianfranco Folena, 6 vols. Vicenza: Pozza, — , — In this they clearly show how unaware they are that in all past ages there have always been a number of women who have advanced by becoming commendably learned in all possible ways to contend for a position of first place among the most famous men of their time. And regarding our wedding Do not think that you Will have much more Than the thousand thanks Amorosa speranza, dedicatory letter, n.

Ribera wrote his comments in He makes no reference to Celinda, which he may not have known about, since it came out two years after he published his book. Go then. On the villa lifestyle, see Anton Francesco Doni, Le ville, ed.

Ugo Bellocchi ; Modena: Aedes Muratoriana, Agostino Pertusi Florence: Sansoni, , — The Venetian polygraph Ludovico Dolce was instrumental, for example, in introduc- ing a number of tragedies to the reading public, such as Thyeste , Didone , La Hecuba , La Medea , Progne , Marianna , Ifigenia , and Le troiane He also commented on what to do with the Aristotelian unities, suggested ways for the author to deal with messengers and soliloquies, and sketched how to delineate tragic characters with their accompa- nying tragic flaws.

Tragedies, even when Giambattista Giraldi Cinzio, Discorso intorno al comporre delle commedie e delle tragedie, in Scritti critici, ed. Camillo Guerrieri-Crocetti ; Milan: Marzorati, , — Giraldi Cinzio claimed that he was not the first to argue for the value of tragedies with a happy ending and provided a list of classic Euripidean tragedies which adopted that format, such as Ion, Helen, Orestes, and Iphigenia.

Aristotle too had claimed that audiences much preferred happy endings. Arnaldi and Pastore Stocchi. The public wanted entertainment rather than suffer- ing, and for that purpose patrons preferred pastorals. For the previous fifty years, he surmised.

Indeed, the majority of tragedies performed or printed at the time have female names on the title page, from Cleopatra to Ingegneri, Della poesia rappresentativa, 7. See Storia documentaria del teatro italiano, ed. Ferruccio Marotti Milan: Feltrinelli, , See La tragedia, — Still they could show that if rebellion to the submissive roles women were given in culture always involved a social cost, courage and steadfastness in the face of adversity made them worthy not just of pity but of admiration.

In a sense, tragedy could put women at the center of debates about their place in society, for the upper class world that populated the tragic stage prized nobility of the soul in women at the same time that it asked for their submission to patriarchy and male prerogatives. By delineating an array of female personalities, women dramatists could also show that there was more to women than the deception and meanness that accompanied the storylines of the popu- lar Medea and Semiramis being currently staged by male writers.

To say the least, they could problematize a theatrical discourse by not offering a sacrificial female victim or by advantageously nuancing the dichotomous rendering of women as virgin or whore, angel or villain that informed the dramatic imagination as well as the literary canon of the time. Giraldi Cinzio, Discorso intorno al comporre delle commedie e delle tragedie, — Finally, the fact that tragedy was traditionally writ- ten in verse was a plus for Italian women writers, who preferred po- etry by far to prose, perhaps because they needed to demonstrate their literacy at a time when they lacked formal schooling.

One night while they share the same bed, Celinda declares her feelings. But she is astonished to discover, upon a detailed physical examination, that Lucinia is a man, Autilio. He confesses his love and utmost devotion to her straight away, still seemingly shy, and not much later Celinda discovers herself to be pregnant.

At the start of the play, she is four months along in her pregnancy and has just received the news that her father is going to marry her to a Scottish prince. Cubo denies that He is thus allowed to go to battle with manly armor and sword. She has been urged to remain alive both by her dying Autilio, who reminds her that she is carrying his heir and for this very reason should be strong, and by Fulco, who wishes to make amends for the horrific destruction that he has brought upon Celinda and his own son.

But Celinda commits suicide nevertheless, for the child she is carrying is a bastard. Following Boccaccio, Miani adopts the motif of a double burial, which Luigi Groto had revived in his tragedy La Hadriana, and which Shakespeare, too, poignantly uses in Romeo and Juliet. Many early modern tragedies were sent straight to press, given the prohibitive cost of staging them and paying for professional actors.

Like Celinda, Hadriana confides to the nurse that she has fallen in love and also has spent the night with Latino, an enemy prince. And again, as in Celinda, Adriana has to deal with the fact that her father has just chosen somebody else for her to marry.

When Latino kills her brother unknowingly and Hadriana refuses to marry the man chosen for her, we know that a calamitous end is in the picture. The two die by poison, as in Romeo and Juliet. There were eight printings of this tragedy in the fifty years after its first edition in to attest to its popularity. Giraldi Cinzio had even argued that most tragedies were better suited for printing than for performance, and that only hybrid tragedies with happy endings should be reserved for the stage.

How successful they were is debatable, al- though Giovanni Domenico Ottonelli, himself a Jesuit, flatly declared that no plays were publicly staged in Venice between the s and Ottonelli, Della christiana moderatione del teatro. This does not mean that it did not oc- casionally happen. Clearly no one had asked the Ten for permission for these performances; Venetians knew that any such request would be turned down. We know that in , for example, university students asked that a pastoral by Cesare Cremonini, a professor of philosophy, be performed and that their request was approved with seventeen votes in favor and four opposed.

See also Sberti, Degli spettacoli e delle feste che si facevano in Padova, Arnaldi and Pastore Stocchi, — For a study of Paduan theaters through the centuries with a reprint of original documents, see Franco Mancini, Maria Ter- esa Muraro, and Elena Povoledo, I teatri del Veneto: Padova, Rovigo e il loro territorio, 5 vols. Venice: Corbo e Fiore, , — Just like Amorosa speranza, Ce- linda too, in fact, may have been performed, or at least so claims the painter and intellectual Cavalier Vanni in a cryptic sonnet addressed to Miani that is now printed in the prefatory section of Celinda.

The Jesuits successfully argued for their closure. Convents were also used but we still know little about what took place there. Other plays with characters similarly named or with com- parable plots were published in those years, testifying in a sense to how much artists competed with each other for a successful script or nonchalantly cannibalized previous successful productions. Here Celindo is a prince. In due time, Clorindo secretly marries Math- ilda, but then he has to leave the court to fight for his own father in Sicily.

The suitor declares war and conquers her city while she poisons herself. See Salvioli and Salvioli, Bibliografia universale del teatro drammatico italiano, vol. But he chooses to die. Here the son of the king of Arme- nia, Sinibaldo, having fallen in love with Rodopeia, the only daugh- ter of the king of Thrace, comes to see her, disguised as a gardener.

We can look at the entire tragic output of the Serenissima to see how widespread was the motif of incest, patricidal killing, bloodshed, and vengeance on stage. Happily, for reasons of decorum, bloody events had to be described on the Italian stage rather than explicitly wit- nessed. For more on the plot, see Bertana, La tragedia, 96— For more on Verlato, see Bertana, La tragedia, 92— As a result, Irene commits suicide.

The queen commits suicide and all the other women at court know that they will be raped. He has also been skinned. As in all early modern tragedies, in Celinda we have loyal sol- diers, noble-hearted counselors, messengers with critical news, and compassionate servants, as well as a sympathetic chorus in fact, three separate choruses to accentuate the Aristotelian element of catharsis.

Central to the plot is also a good, resilient nurse, who provides here and there important historical background and consoles the beloveds. Vincenzo Giusti, Irene Venice: Rampazetto, Angelo Ingegneri, Tomiri Naples: Vitale, Luigi Groto, La Dalida Venice: n. Within this tragic environment, elements from popular epic romances also abound. I am referring, rather, to the motifs of cross-dressing and gender-bending, which after all would better fit comedies. The locales have not been chosen at random, for Miani shows herself highly knowl- edgeable of the myth, folklore, and historical facts connected to Lydia and Persia.

For specific references, see the notes accompanying Celinda. The amorous action, indeed, starts when Celinda falls in love with Autilio and literally checks him out physically. At this point only he declares the love that motivated his disguise in the first place, thus creating a brief lesbian moment that Miani conveys in the erotic tones typical of the tragedies of the time: And so, there I went, where the feigned Lucinia on soft cushions remained infirm and languishing.

And from my rich attire having disrobed, nude, I settled by her side. And touching and kissing again now her white face, now her beautiful neck, I made of these arms around her a chain. But so much did I do and so much did I say in the end that she pushed my right hand over her white chest, and then I realized it was not, like mine, adorned with breasts.

Giraldi Cinzio had argued that tragic characters should be delineated so as to be partly good and partly evil, in order to engen- der compassion in the audience when something terrible happens to them. Given their tragic flaw, these half-good, half-bad characters de- serve some sort of penalty for Giraldi Cinzio, but not a horrible one; thus, as justice is reestablished, the audience can feel both compassion and horror—the two elements that make tragedies powerful.

Horror, moreover, is more commanding if the victim is ignorant of the sin that he or she has committed, for the spectators are thus likely to iden- tify so much with the hideous and yet pitiful character on stage that they look for a change of fortune, from unhappy to happy. Following these dramaturgical conventions, in Celinda King Cubo is not delineated as overly villainous, excessive, or monstrous, but simply as being self-possessed, autocratic, and, in the end, stupid.

Carlachiara Perrone Galatina: Congedo, , 71— He is too much of a fool for the spectators to care much about him. He presents himself in Act 1. Omphale fell in love with him, the two married and had a child, Lamos. More damningly, he wants to kill his father, who has no ethical reasons to be punished either as a father or as a king, for the war he wages against Lydia is for the purpose of getting back his own runaway son and heir.

On the battlefield Autilio slaughters or conquers his own friends and loses along the way much of the moral standing that he may have gained with the spectators. More damningly, he is cast as being not good enough: he falls, wounded, by the hand of his father and has to be protected from further mortal injuries by that other father of the story, King Cubo, who is then killed for his efforts.

In the literature of the period, some authors were arguing that there should be a difference in the way royal female characters are treated; unlike women of the citizenry, it was argued, fictional royal women were supposed to be heroic and so not necessarily chaste and mod- est. Given the imitative nature of plot elements in contemporary plays, it was inevitable for Miani to model at least in part her conflicted Celinda after the royal princesses that the stage was offering.

Although torn and anguished at the thought of the effects that her pri- vate choices may have on things political, Celinda is characterized as pursuing her dream of heroic love in a self-centered way and with no regrets. But it is also a natural one, she claims, because her beloved deserves her, as in this scene in which Traiano Boccalini, Ragguagli di Parnaso e Pietra del paragone politico, ed.

Giuseppe Rua, 2 vols. She is my lover, and the fortunate king. Nurse You deride and mock me. Eh, daughter, these are of little faith all truthful signs. Celinda Under a lying skirt and under the false name of Lucinia hides Autilio, the prince of Persia, my welcome consort and dear lover.

Even if her union does not disturb social classes Autilio is her equal in rank nor, once the disguise is shed, gender boundaries, it is still anathema to the Law of the Father, for she is unmistakably a polluted daugh- ter. Strong, talkative, and never repentant like Antigone, Celinda refuses to live a life whose dreams are compromised, and so falls into suicidal depression and welcomes the coming catastrophe. The resolution is pathetic, as the tears of the commod- ified and victimized daughter are directed to the public, and her piti- able lament works as a figurative cleansing of the emotions.

The heroic grief of classic tragedy has become the love anguish of the early modern stage as individuals sacrifice themselves left and right on the altar of love. The cathartic encouragement of pity and fear among the spectators of the classical theater is thus substituted by the therapeutic value of the lament that explains the passion of love both in terms of its aesthetic value as in courtly love and Petrarchist poetry and in terms of a destructive and yet fated individual choice.

In plead- ing with the audience for an understanding of her suffering, Celinda showcases a novel idea about tragic pleasure. Who ever saw anyone but you weep over the thing he sought for? Waldman, 4. That this eventu- ally resulted in boring female characters is only part of the story.

For a woman writer like Miani, such a choice would have meant certain disempowerment of her female protagonist, for the valiant patience and utter submission of Griselda can hardly be qualities realistical- ly adoptable by women. Better to have the distressed and bereaved Celinda fully realize the hopelessness of her situation and die tragi- cally, dominating the stage with her grief.

Her castigation for having wreaked havoc becomes thus a self-silencing; her surreptitious plung- ing of a just-found knife into her chest a gesture that is recounted by the valet Corimbo to keep decorum on stage works as a cautionary tale: women of high rank who profit from a breakdown of patriarchal authority will pay dearly for their choice of a partner: She, who until then as if of marble, immobile had stayed, reinvigorated, with her own right hand closed his eyes—and with a certain blade, a military instrument, which she found upon the bed of the dead man, unseen by anyone, her own breast she transfixed.

Alexandra Collier has recently shown how the introduction of the lament in the commedia grave of the late sixteenth century paved the way for the virtuoso performances of actresses and female singers in early opera. On tragic pleasure and catharsis, see A. New York: Oxford University Press, Counter-Reformation morality would hardly have forgiven a female author for creating a physically unchaste, verbally exuberant, and politically unorthodox teenager who becomes queen of two kingdoms after so much senseless blood spilled for the sake of an infatuation.

Giraldi Cinzio, Altile Venice: Cagnacini, Her dedication to Ele- onora is dated July This means that her letter and copy were de- livered when the duchess was bedridden, plagued by malaria. Unlike sion granted on August 24, ]. The duke was fa- mously enthralled with the minutiae of contracts and costumes for the stage, but Eleonora too solicited plays and had a good deal of authority in pursuing her schemes. The request was denied. A few months later, in February , all Carnival festivities were canceled, for Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga too had died, thus putting an end to the most fruitful collaboration of the era between princes and artists.

To the left and right there are two putti, each holding a laurel and each sitting on a capitol decorated with the head of a horned faun. At the bot- tom, together with some apotropeic masks, there are two fauns with legs of goats see fig. The abundance of references makes clear that we inhabit an idyllic Arcadian world, although the title in the middle of the title page spells out its tragic content. But who is the feminine figure appear- ing on both title pages with a laurel branch in her right hand?

She is drawn within a tiny rondeau at the center of the woodcut as she leans on a column in which the word Pax is printed. She has curly hair and is dressed like a character in a pastoral. I would like to suggest that this could be the way that Valeria Miani the playwright chose to inscribe herself. There is no record in the Gonzaga Archive of any thank you letter addressed to Miani. I have consulted busta and busta , both connected to the year In poems prefacing Celinda, Miani is described as having stereotypically curly blond tresses.

But Della Chiesa wrongly remarked that Celinda was dedicated to the Duke of Mantua rather than to his wife. Pietro Petracci, Rime diverse Venice: n. I thank Virgina Cox for this reference. Bergalli worked with Apostolo Zeno. Ferri, Biblioteca femminile italiana, — Ginevra Canonici Fachini, Prospetto biografico delle donne italiane rinomate in letter- atura Venice: Alvisopoli, ; Vedova, Biografia degli scrittori padovani, —; and Napoleone Pietrucci, Delle illustri donne padovane: Cenni biografici Padua: Bianchi, , 45— Busto Arsizio: Tip.

Pellegatta, , Arnaldi and Pastore Stocchi, Bertana, La tragedia, Bruno Brunelli, for example, ignores our playwright in I teatri di Padova; and Delfina Forti dismisses her pastoral play together with that of the other two known female play- wrights of the period. The present transcription is based on the edition in quartos of the text published by the Paduan printer Francesco Bolzetta through [appresso] Domenico Amadio in Vicenza. Since occasionally some characters in the play are faded, I have used two printed versions: the one at the Marciana Library in Venice Dramm.

The Marciana copy bears some handwritten corrections, either by the author or the printer, in black in the text. The Chicago copy appears to have come to us through a French connection. It contains a copy of the permission to publish it, given by the Council of Ten in Venice, upon recommendation of the Reformers of the Studio in Padua on August 27, That permission reads as follows: Gli Eccellentissimi SS.

Anton[io] Vallaresso D. More specifi- cally, following modern usage there has been conservative interven- tion in the following: 1. The letters v and u have been distinguished; and the letter j when in initial position or intervocalic has been changed into i varji is now vari 2. Punctuation has been added or removed when necessary 3. Words spelled inconsistently or misspelled have been cor- rected August 27, Modern spelling has been given very conservatively for some most common words in the text prencipe is now principe; omai is ormai The letter h has been removed at the beginning of words huomini is now uomini and in the middle choro is coro when unnecessary Note on the Translation The translation attempts to follow the structure of the verses for the sake of those poetic elements that could be reproduced, focusing pri- marily on the poetic word order, rhythm and alliteration, but without trying to recreate English verse.

The other primary concern has been clarity of meaning. Your Highness, fa- vored by God, adorned by Nature, and enriched by Fortune with more exalted endowments and greater prerogatives than any other princess of our time or of the past centuries, is justly admired by the world and revered as a holy tabernacle of virtues and a venerable temple of the graces of the celestial Venus and the divine Love.

Humble and obscure, I present myself in the presence of Your Highness, in order to show you part of that reverence and dutiful subjection which everyone owes you, and particularly our sex which is marvelously glorified by the very bright sun of your most serene light. I believed it not unseemly, in this my first encounter, to offer you myself and at the same time to consecrate to you this poetic effort of mine, such as it is, the offspring of a sterile intellect, to a mother most prolific no less of virtues than of a royal and glorious lineage.

Nor must the world deem my endeavor presumptuous or reckless, because I have dared to send you this lowly gift, since shining with it are mag- nanimous and valorous heroes, perhaps not unworthy to be received by your heroic and outstanding intellect. By means of the shadows of tearful and unhappy events I hope, as is the custom with painters, to make stand out more clearly in contrast the joys and grandeurs of Your Highness, and so with the comparison of the shadows to make better known the worth of the light.

There she meets a happy fate: set aflame in the bright light of your grace, she will burn; she will catch fire; and in the celestial pyre of that divine splendor, not death or burial, but a bright and glorious life she hopes to carry away. It remains for Your Highness not to disdain this tragic off- spring of mine, having greater regard for the spirit of the humble giver than for the lowliness of the gift itself.

I recognize no other merit in my gift than that sincerity and affection with which I consecrate it to you, supplicating Your Highness that you consent to receive me into the ranks of your lowliest servants. And wishing for you from Heaven the height of every joy, humbly I bow to you.

It rises up in splendor, and rightfully honors you, for from your beautiful lugubrious song Celinda learns to live a life far brighter than the light of Heaven which gilds the world; than that light with which, in bringing the day, the eternal charioteer with his flying destriers points out you alone, and with his own merits he decorates your name which is adorned with virtue.

Thus with double torment this beautiful murderess with her pen and with her eyes challenges us to death. Oh, how sweet you render these tragic accents— Thebes heard none more sorrowful. You shine, yes; but brightly also in the rays of your eyes, which overcome the sun by far. Mere mortal esteem for your valor would be base, for you seem from your visage a Grace, and a Muse from your song.

Never so beautiful did the unique bird emerge from the pyre which kills it and renews it against the harms of invidious and wicked Time,16 as from your verses I see beautiful Celinda, burned by love, to a new life rise up, and indeed fly far from oblivion. Accorto Amor, o quante astuzie, o quante Inspira altrui la sua possente face! It is only life that with your golden lyre you cannot give, O wise lady, nor with the sun can you give night to those who were, alas, long ago buried.

But yet with one look turned to others you can animate the alps with wilder stone, and in the sky you can halt the moon and the sun. Clever Love, oh how, how much craftiness your powerful torch inspires in people! He came, and saw, and conquered, and his peace he found with delight in front of his beautiful sun. Celinda, A Tragedy 71 But then when he to wage war went forth against his sire, ah! A miserable deceit; in this way, Love, you are false?

In this way together with the sweet is the bitter united? In this way you give life? In this way, death? To call you a Siren is also forbidden me, for with your singing you do not cause harsh torment. Therefore by whatever name must I call you, O goddess who in song resembles the god of Delos,21 yet whom in a mortal form I cherish?

Ah, what sort of monster are you under your human veil? Because at the same time I, stunned, hear and see: in your sound, Hell, and in your beautiful visage, Heaven. Celinda, A Tragedy 73 Argument Autilio, the prince of Persia, fell in love with Celinda, the princess of Lydia, from her reputation and an image he saw of her. Dressed in feminine attire, he came to Lydia and took care to be sold as an Irish slave girl to King Cubo, father of Princess Celinda. Aided by his youth and the del- icacy of his features, he carried out his plan, and as a maid served his beloved princess.

After some time and various incidents, he revealed his identity, and enjoyed her love. Autilio however was not recognized by his father, and by him was mortally wounded, which led to the subsequent vol- untary death of Princess Celinda. Che dico a rimirar? What am I saying, to behold? Alas, I come to administer poison to the three sisters with the snaky hair.

Fortune smiled on his lascivious desires, so that he later of his beloved darling received the gift. Here the cruel man lives, forgetful 30 of my love, amid comforts and luxuries; and as much as he hated me, that much he loves Celinda, and esteems her. Celinda, A Tragedy 79 He loves her beauty; he prizes the bloodline of her regal ancestors; he adores and worships 35 her corrupted chastity—though to the same extent he said he hated mine, unviolated still.

Pitiless barbarian and beastly heart! To me he denied his love. He disdained my royal blood. I thought that death, in releasing my heart from my soul, would release as well the bonds 65 of hopeless love. But wretched me! I was mistaken. Love is nourished in the deepest abysses, and lives with me where hope is dead.

Celinda, A Tragedy 81 It lives, but hopeless, and it cedes the field 70 to my desire to obtain the death, the suffering, and the ruin of him whom I loved so much, and this very day I hope to see memorable instances of it. This is the royal palace; 85 for its spacious loggias, for its white marble, and for the noble work of an outstanding craftsman, throughout the world it is illustrious. Of the tyrants of Lydia it is the infamous nest.

In these regal rooms 90 the prince of the Persians lazes in amorous idleness. And I among so many sorrows, among a thousand ranks of unspeakable pains, still here I waste my time? Ah, it will not be so forever. As a grieving shade I will disturb his slumbers. This wound, which still reddens my breast with bloody droplets, I shall place before his eyes; and in such a way I shall make him firmly believe that inevitably shall come ruin and deaths which will make these roofs drip with other blood before long, and will turn every joy into weeping.

Celinda, A Tragedy 83 May the queen of the Persians, by my death afflicted, while yet living conspire with her dead daughter, and may Hell conspire to the detriment of the wicked one, so that he may die, and with him may fall to ruin and perish, together with his beloved, this kingdom. Those rays which shone later in her charming eyes, imitated masterfully by an industrious paintbrush on the animated canvas, were chains and arrows 15 which made knots in my soul and wounds in my breast so that I left my father, my high estate, and my kingdom, and came here, where Love directed me.

In the dress of a slave girl 20 I made my body her servant, for over my heart she held dominion. And I was worthy to be her lover and husband. Thus Love triumphs over loving hearts; thus are his edicts oblique and twisted. He pointed out to me that treasure which, once seen, in a flash disappeared. E fui qual donna caramente accolto, 45 Dove in processo poi di giorni e mesi Frutti gustai de le mie ardenti fiamme, Che non invidio il gran tonante Giove Ne gli amorosi suoi furtivi amplessi.

Celinda, A Tragedy 87 You transport lovers from the port of joys into the sea of tears. You revealed to my eyes that vivid ray from heaven, the flame of hearts, the food of souls, 40 for which, following glorious Hercules, I did not refuse to cinch a skirt to my flank, to wind a spindle, to curl my locks, to make up stories among the chaste maidservants.

Who rebukes me and calls me from my sweet amorous sojourns, and from the field of Love to that of Mars? Ah me! The spirit of the baleful Eusina my death predicts in wretched dreams with nocturnal specters. Rise now, effeminate Autilio, for that day I have so much desired is revealed as today, 70 when to an end the war will come, together with your life, and with the life also of that woman whom you love so much.

It was not in my power to lodge another woman where Celinda resided. Restrain, restrain, O soul noble and beautiful if my prayers avail , that fiery desire 90 which so presses you in your greed for vengeance, for I promise to raise your shrine upright in my kingdom; and every day, I swear, full of pure and holy zeal, I shall honor the tomb of your chaste remains 95 with Arabian perfumes and sacred incenses. And if for my blood you thirst so much, and you long for my soul to be in the shadowy abysses together with you among fierce torments, at least toward her who has not offended you, show yourself benign; and I, content with this great hope, to the Stygian realms36 will come to pay due tribute to your spirit for my suffering so eager.

Already it is time to set down my skirt and mantle, my feminine name, my golden locks, and in their stead with steel to dress my limbs, and against my father to fly out. Even more so because this womanly dress cannot excuse me in the eyes of the woman to whom Heaven made me subject. Ma che? Che non mi scopro al padre?

Celinda, A Tragedy 93 she saw me, her beloved knight and lover, remain effeminate and soft among the comforts of peace? But wait! Shall I, an iniquitous son, therefore stain with paternal blood my very own hands? Shall I turn weapons against him who for me wages war indomitably? Shall I deprive of their souls those faithful peoples over whom the world and Heaven have declared me king?

In what a sea of thoughts do I miserably waver? Tender compassion for my dear father, and the innocent blood of my vassals that will be shed, and that which I owe to this king of Lydia, along with the common good which must be followed by those destined for rule by Heaven , to do this urge me; but jealous fear of making known my amorous error not only to the king of the Persians but also to the king of Lydia and to the whole world as well is a tight rein that holds me back by force.

And more than any other thing, it is forbidden me by Love, Love who does not consent that I do anything by which I might for a moment of my beloved darling ever be deprived. I shall not make war on my father, but in the case of greatest need I shall make my breast the shelter and shield of the sire of my beautiful lover. O new Aurora, O new horror I meant to say, I discern and perceive you unusually haughty.

I shall return where a more beautiful Aurora I hope to see, if with dew her soft, white breast she has not sprinkled, because it is necessary for her to leave a new Tithonus. Or that his warlike inimical people 5 might damage the city or the kingdom? I shall forestall his plans. I shall ensure that the Persian king will not be able to damage my city and kingdom, though powerful in gold and in arms 10 he comes against us. And well you know what forces prepared I have to oppose against fury so great, and how the esteem for my daring and my glory rises high among warlike rulers.

Celinda, A Tragedy 97 well can one reason whether, girded up for this war, my daring, strength, and valor are likely to fail me. I do not however approve that, in prey to anger like a common man, my lord abandons himself completely. Rather, let him act as a prudent king who at all times with the eye of justice discerns 35 which are the ruses, which the deceptions used nowadays in the courts by the impious disdainers of peace, those who under a veil of service, of feigned love, do whatever they can to disperse and dissolve it.

Without scorn wrathful, and without wrath scornful, welcome the fierce invitation, and let your response be equal to the proposal 50 of this war, which an impious hand plotted. Every thought in my mind it is permitted you to spy out, along with the deep recondite secrets of my heart, 75 which from you were never concealed. And how agreeable to his requests I have proven myself, and how courteous, you know also, when he oh great boldness! And very nearly within the rooms 90 they were introduced of my daughter, to be better able fully of my sincere faith to be reassured.

Thereupon he boldly with a powerful army arrived at the port, such that it is certainly necessary that today I demonstrate my undefeated power with this right hand. Counselor Not that I dare, lord, in the least to deflect from your proposed will your royal mind; but with a few words now I would like to tell Your Highness what in such a case my loyalty suggests, and my years, because an aged mind sometimes gazes where the fervor of the blood does not allow warlike intellects to reach.

Cubo My venerable faithful one, in circumstances prosperous or adverse always I deemed your wisdom hoary in conformity with your hair, nor now must I refuse your mature counsel at the greatest need. Gli tengo a forza il figlio? Cubo Gli dei certo non fur. Predir il falso Non suol celeste nume. Therefore by this impelled, I will advise you to mellow your wrath somewhat against the great king of the Persians, because perhaps he has just cause to be enraged.

Cubo What just cause to be enraged? Do I hold by force his son? Is he perhaps my prisoner? Where does he dwell? Counselor You do not have his son as a prisoner. He thinks so because he does not hold as baseless the pronouncements of the gods.

Cubo It was certainly not the gods. A celestial deity is not accustomed to make false pronouncements. Counselor The oracle of Apollo to him predicted46 that his son was subject to Lydia and subjugated by the royal crown, and in the furor of arms today he is to find him.

Counselor It was true that plotters in great numbers from your court, rebellious against your kingdom, to him offered themselves. Although a presage of future things unknown to him, he suspected those tidings. But he had recourse to the gods; while he immolated, kneeling at the altar of the holy deity, a fat bull whiter than snow, with veiled auguries and obscure indications he received a response just such as the fortuneteller gave him: that in Lydia was his son, and that war and not peace would give him to him in the end.

Delighted at such a response he rose up humbly, and started over with an even worthier sacrifice in honor of great Mars. Subsequently he also, with that majesty which to a king is appropriate, proudly has arrived to direct the siege around these city walls. Now whether a just cause to this urges him, or whether wrongfully the war he undertakes, I do not dare to determine, because truly whatever might come from Heaven I do not clearly discern.

For the human mind is foolish, just like the eye of the lowly bat which by the light of the sun is dazzled, when audaciously it tries to spy out the irrevocable laws and the great decrees of Fate and of the eternal deities. You might welcome him within your superb kingdom, for perhaps satisfied with the principle being granted, he will find repugnant so false a suspicion; and meanwhile benign Heaven perhaps will return him his son among so many ranks of men armed, bellicose, and strong.

Consigliero Tanto appunto, signor, quanto conviensi Al tuo saper, a le tue forze invitte. But first I want to go worship humbly the sacrosanct and venerable deities with sacrifices and vows, and by the auspices of Heaven and of the gods reassured, I will place myself on the field for the perilous battle. Counselor Just so much, lord, as is appropriate to your wisdom, to your indomitable strength. I thank lofty Jove for having been set to serve a king so just, for if rightly I discern, from Heaven his every good the wise man expects.

Mad is he who for pride against Heaven contends, and who for great kingdoms and for immense riches disdains the Mover of the world. To these, to these will be an eternal example the horrendous monsters who, in battling against Heaven, left in the Phlegraean Fields their thunderstruck remains.

Why so hurried? Why among doubts and fears 15 does your infirm mind whirl? Tell me, if of such grace by now I seem to you worthy, my dear daughter, the cause so cruel that moves you at dawn to sigh. You know well my loyalty and my way of dealing with matters.

Celinda I cannot deny, Nurse, nor must I, that for overflowing grief an ailing mind 30 I bear, and an afflicted heart. Therefore in my visage sometimes a flicker of internal anguish reveals itself to others, even though in vain I attempt to close it up so that it does not show outside.

Ma lassa! Celinda Dear Nurse, it is indeed true, for not well can a wretched heart keep concealed the grief that it encloses. In what manner 55 shall I loosen this tongue to start listing my many troubles? And how shall I of my shames be the accuser? O Heaven, first blast me with lightning and thunder! Nurse Therefore so little faith in my faithfulness you have, O daughter? Therefore my blood, 65 which as a baby you sucked, in you is unable to entreat for me today so slight a grace?

Ah, unhappy wretch! A poorly appreciated servant of so beloved a daughter. Nutrice Ahi, lassa, Ahi, me dolente, Ahi, sfortunata vecchia, Ahi, povera nutrice! Seek no further, if for your daughter you do not want to procure 75 a thousand deaths in one single death. Nurse Alas! Aiee, what suffering! Aiee, unlucky old woman! Aiee, poor nurse! Is this therefore the joy that I hoped for? Is this the knot 80 with which Hymen binds you to a glorious king?

Thus it is given to me to see your august offspring? Celinda Restrain, O Nurse, your weeping, for your excessive anguish, 90 just like fuel for a blazing fire, adds pain to my heart. Be quiet and console yourself, and live in the certainty that your living on after my death will make my soul pass on content and in peace.

And what error have you committed so grave that it might induce you to die? Celinda It must not be called an error where the blame is held by Love. It was precisely Love who constrained me to be my own shame and humiliation.

Celinda He pretends to be blind, the little child god, so as to bring to lovers under a mendacious light now joy, now sorrows. Nurse If he blindfolded my eyes at the greatest need, alas! Celinda, A Tragedy Celinda With flattery and promises of giving a nobler mantle to these limbs, he undressed me of that one; whereas naked and deceived the false liar in the end has left me. Nurse Dry your tears, daughter, for your visage of alabaster, tinted suddenly with the vermilion of roses, and your tremulous voice make known to me great things.

Tell me, by all means if not with a delighted, at least with a sad brow , from the beginning, of this love the whole story, for to the same extent I feel my grief lighten, just as much as my hope grows to be able to give you aid. Celinda In my circumstances one cannot hope for aid.

And certainly in vain you attempt to root out from this heart the bitter cares. Nurse Do you plan to conceal this case of love, or to make it plain? If it can be concealed, do not doubt that I will help, but if so far it has gone on that concealed it cannot be from the great king your father and my lord, let every remedy be attempted before death, the extremest of every harm.

Let follow what may, provided that you remain alive. Perhaps it was the page Urino, that good-looking boy who many times spoke with you, as I saw with these eyes, and I kept mum? He so gracefully, now loosing, now taking up the bit, once he had circled the great square, moved quickly in the course, nimbly at the jump, always with his eyes upon your visage intent. For this reason, it is difficult for me to imagine that you so far beyond have sped in love with him, or with another, that he might have stolen away your beautiful virginal flower.

Celinda Ah, Nurse, Nurse. Therefore you dare with baseness to taint Celinda, the princess of Lydia? Or therefore I might not refuse with the women of Sparta to go as a peer, a violated girl and not a proud queen? Con nodo maritale Seco Imeneo mi stringe, Egli a me vive, io vivo a lui consorte.

Parvi materia questa, Da lasciarne la vita? For me he lives, and I live for him, as consorts. Does this seem to you a reason to abandon life? Tell me, for I am consumed with desire and joy, no longer with grief and trouble.

Celinda Do you know that noble damsel, Lucinia, my dear and welcome servant, faithful secretary of my thoughts? Eh figlia! Nutrice Che mi dite? Nutrice E come si scoperse? Celinda, A Tragedy at that door which to your rooms is opposite, in the garden. Celinda Not the procuress, but the means most apt, she was of my failure. Nurse What do you tell me? What do I hear? Then he has deceived you with lying garb, the very knight on whose behalf war and death his haughty father against your kingdom declares?

Celinda Both he and I have ended up wretched and deceived by that boy who all the world ensnares. Nurse And how did he reveal himself? You well know that the king my father brought him to me in the first place, as a slave girl from Ireland, whom a foreign merchant to him conducted, like other captives both Persian and Moorish whom he had brought here. When in the end the king my father gave her to me now I shall call him her, for a woman still I believed her , for a long time with me she dwelled before showing she burned for me; but she made herself to me so, so agreeable that of light deprived I seemed without her, and half alive.

At last her amorous blaze had progressed so far that by now it barely was contained within her incapacious breast, so that her beautiful visage actually faded, as when in the excessive heat of the burning sun a rose is seen to languish, shaken from its honors charming and vermilion; and with ardent sighs which were messengers of her heart to me she made known her burning ardor.

Celinda, A Tragedy I want you to be to me, and let my joys with you be held in common. She, trembling, pulled the white linens tightly to her chest, and she looked at me silently. I yet further pursued; the more she hid herself, the more I still kept trying to uncover her. Celinda Love, who had plotted my harm, wanted me to administer also my shames. And so, there I went, where the feigned Lucinia on soft cushions remained infirm and languishing.

He drew from it a work rich and precious wherein sculpted was my image, and in a long story he recounted his amorous fire: how little he cared about the love of Eusina, the daughter of his stepmother, whom the king his father wanted to give him as wife, together with her despising the great empire of Thrace.

This was because he had turned toward me, his dear beloved who had become the idol of his heart, the thoughts and wishes for which, in secretly leaving his paternal kingdom, he was then the cause that unhappy Eusina, to herself cruel, by a desperate desire, by her unrequited love burned and impelled, opened her breast with her own naked blade. After that, he became in his demeanor humble and charming; kneeling, he prayed that of his so-great daring I would make the correction, by taking away his life, which to him was valuable only in order to serve me.

At the sudden and never-foreseen shams discovered, at the unsuspected frauds, at the unprecedented incident, think, my Nurse, what state I was in. Celinda, A Tragedy of being held infamous and a murderess, since he wanted then with a naked knife to pierce his chest. Here, Nurse, begins the story, miserable and sorrowful, of my lost virginity.

He won in the end, thanks to cruel Love; therefore, joining to this hand of mine his no less strong than amorous hand, of his faithfulness a firm pledge to be my bridegroom he gave. Ah, night more beautiful than every other, but more than every other faithless and wretched!

In thinking of it I feel my heart melt like cold snow in the sun on a bright hill. Nurse Ah, Night! There never was nor will be one than you more malicious and wicked. There is yet worse, for the king my father by now of nothing else thinks than with my nuptials, ah me! Nurse Momentous indeed is the cause, and grave, which induces you to suffer.

But console in part your grief, for with a happy fate Heaven will steal away your many cares. Nutrice Con le lagrime vostre Giungete duolo a duolo. Nurse Temper, daughter, your amorous blaze. Nurse With your tears you add grief to grief. What course of action must be taken to bring to an end the horrible war which for her has already arisen? Celinda, A Tragedy for as the prey of a lover who wears enemy insignia, only at adverse fortune would I rejoice. Nurse And if alas! Celinda I fear not, my Nurse, with Autilio in the field for such is the name of my Lucinia , that the squadrons of the enemy might cause my father humiliation and outrage.

Nurse What do you mean, Autilio in the field? If indeed in a short skirt, with long tresses, unarmed, with you he stays, and slothful? Bellicose in demeanor, to wage war against both my heart and also Heaven, he intends to go into the field to the perilous battle.

He hopes, with the continued life of the king my father, to find certain victory. Nurse May Heaven permit it. But because I seem to hear people around here, let us go into the palace, for more honorably you will be able to espy of the battlefield and of the war every secret from the highest balcony.

Chorus of Ladies61 O dear, O sacred Peace,62 O daughter of great Jove, O eternal preserver of the lovely eternal circuits of the wandering planets, from the realms where there is no winter, where it does not thunder or rain, turn toward us with pity your holy eyes, and with celestial help give peace to souls, and to hearts, life. You who yoked first to the curved plow the oxen, and a rustic hand you allowed to gather from the fertile bosom of the ancient mother as many fruits as are distributed to nature, by nature, and art, defend those who pray to you.

Thus the peaceful state we will enjoy of sweet, beloved repose. But why are you so sorrowful and so pensive? Come, clear away every fear, every fright, 15 every figment of horror from your soft breast. Although now with a thousand armed ranks the enemy king has encircled our kingdom, less reason it provides for you to take fright. Lucinia Mother, and my lady for so I must out of reverence and love call you , if within the royal apartments to seek me a wearisome care 40 drew you, in vain you roamed.

Listen, I will tell you the reason. Therefore I, full of horror, here where my foot drew me more than my heart, find myself in the end, 50 without knowing where to wander or to turn. Armilla Out of the terror of portents, happy and lucky auguries compassionate Heaven often promises us, and their secrets the gods cover under a mantle of horror.

From a servant it will make you a lady and a queen. Lucinia, now more precious garments 70 will be seen to adorn your graceful limbs, and your beautiful golden hair, now artless, artfully perhaps unkempt, will be seen decorated with gems and gold; to it will yield in charm both gems and gold.

Did his daughter consent to obey him? Armilla I will see you yourself on a lofty throne seated, shining in purple and in gold, and from the servile yoke your neck released, and a royal crown encircle your hair. Lucinia Voi, signora, stringete in picciol fascio Gran cose, alte promesse Che in sol pensarle impallidisco e tremo. As a humble servant to my king I want to live. For limbs yet worthier let the scepter and mantle 95 be reserved, and let the royal crown encircle other locks, worthier because royal-blooded.

With a simple veil my unkempt tresses let me instead encircle, and dress my flank with a lowly skirt appropriate to my humble fortune. Armilla Lowly attire does not cover your noble light, nor how much it is proud and fine, for a regal majesty shines through you, as well our king knows. He is already so taken with your many divine endowments that his heart cannot contain the blaze and the fire which for you burn him, consume and undo him. Therefore to ask you to wife he is resolved. Just now he has urged me on with such a request, and with tokens of faith as well he sends me, which you see here.

In the private room he awaits us, where he as a witness will call Jove, with Hymen, with the other gods. And as a sign of faith he promises to adorn your right hand with a golden gem, and to make you in the end the consort of his life and of his kingdom. Lucinia You, lady, clasp in a small bundle great matters, momentous promises, such that in merely thinking of them I grow pale and tremble.

That he desires me as his consort, and requests it— as an unmerited and undesired grace I recognize it, and it grieves me that I do not have a way to thank His Highness. Deh, scaccia ogni spavento, ogni temenza! Non creder, figlia, a i sogni, Che di rado o non mai Fede suol prestar loro alma prudente. Armilla Daughter, two are the gates, ivory the one, of horn the other, from which issue dreams; from the former the false ones, the true ones emerge from the latter.

Certainly this one of yours was to the truth I adhere a lying, horrid phantasm which came to you through the ivory door, not at all a truthful dream. Do not believe, daughter, in dreams, for rarely or never is a prudent soul accustomed to put faith in them. Ma che sogno? Fu vision verace. The immortal soul, into the divinity of itself withdrawn at that time, becomes such that it penetrates and discerns them as in a lucid mirror, or in a transparent and limpid crystal. It was a truthful vision.

Then, roaring, a fierce lion appeared which with claws and with bites wounded and killed now this one, now that one. With his talons he tore them apart into shreds and more shreds, sating with these his greedy hungers. He was horribly brawling with another lion which had shortly before come out from the great gate of the royal palace, near the passageway, and strong, armed ranks of bold soldiers followed him, ready to share with the lion an equal fortune.

Upon a ferocious courser seated, I appeared to wield the lance and sword and to make with my blood the weapons vermilion in the service of that lion which I too followed. In the end I saw him defeated and bound and captured, led to the depths of eternal oblivion. Celinda, A Tragedy not only the battlefield thunder around us, but all of Lydia and the innermost valleys. From the great roar she was fleeing, no less than I; and upon seeing me a fugitive in my actions, from my flight she learned even greater flight.

Then chagrined and sorrowful and indeed of death desirous, toward the point of my naked blade, which my right hand held gripped, the wretch turned her breast and transfixed herself. Now if my fear is vain, you yourself tell me, and whether today I have reason to rejoice. Resta tu lieta, figlia, E dando pace al core Rasserena il bel guardo. Come, let the delirium draw to a close. Let us go inside the palace; already the hour has passed that the king to me prescribed.

Lucinia As usual, to the rooms of Celinda I will go, to come later at the command of my lord. This late arrival of the giallo sub genre is notorious for one simple but justified reason. And we're not just talking "nasty" in terms of cheesy make-up effects, but the overall tone is truly sadistic and misogynistic! Although we're really only referring to one sequence in particular, it's more than sickening enough to last a lifetime.

Sadly this reputation doesn't imply that "The Killer is still among us" is a good or even worthwhile viewing experience. Quite the contrary, it's easily the WORST giallo I've seen thus far and the complete lack of some rudimentary elements will surely disappoint the loyal fans of this wondrous sub genre. Camillo Teti's film takes its inspiration from a factual Italian serial killer case that took place in Florence but never got solved.

I'm personally intrigued by murder cases that really took place, but an open ending doesn't go well with the whole concept of a giallo. The search for the killer's identity is actually the whole point of a giallo, so the least Teti could have done was invent a fictional climax to close his film with. Now it's simply a series of vague clues and weak red herring that lead to nowhere at all and you just can't speak positive about such a film.

The absence of closure unfortunately isn't the only problem, as the script contains numerous holes and severe improbabilities. There's a sick individual on the loose in Florence and his main target are young couples that make love in their cars on the forestry edge of town. An ambitious criminology student takes an interest in the case and hopes to dedicate her final thesis to the killings.

So she starts her own private investigation that introduces her into a world of voyeurism and perverted maniacs. Even her brand new lover, who's an autopsy surgeon, behaves suspiciously and he never seems to be around when the murders occur. Another major flaw is that this girl seemingly is the only person who cares about the murders.

There're never any policemen around and if she discovers something interesting, she goes to see her university professor instead of the nearest authorities. No wonder the case never got solved. Frankly, the film is painfully boring until that one horrible moment comes into the picture.

The killer cuts open the tent of a young couple, promptly kills them and then sadistically mutilates the dead girl's genitalia. It's really sick, hard to stomach and incredibly gratuitous. It is based on the still unsolved series of murders in Florence and that lack of closure makes its over-the-top sexual violence all the more unsettling.

A criminology student named Christina Marelli decides to write her thesis about a mysterious serial killer terrorizing couples in lover's lane. As she starts searching around she gets obscene phone calls. Is the killer her boyfriend Alex or maybe someone else? This forgotten Italian giallo is truly shocking.

The scenes of sexual violence and mutilations are extremely well-done brilliant special effects by Roberto Pace and disturbing. A young couple is murdered in a tent. The boy has his throat cut open,while the girl is shot several times.

The killer then slowly slices off her right nipple and cuts apart her vagina in close-up. This sequence is so graphic and sick that I almost threw up during it. The film is also suspenseful and bizarre in some scenes check out the Devil's Bar moments. Highly recommended. Login Register. Loading, please wait. Quality: All p p p 3D. Year: All Download Watch Now. Select movie quality.

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Il testimone, in particolare, rivela sempre 'Panorama', racconta di aver visto Vigna attivarsi per coprire persone del clan che potevano essere coinvolte nelle indagini sui delitti delle coppiette. Come, ad esempio, Giuseppe Barrui, conoscente di Pietro Pacciani e amico del sardo Francesco Vinci, coinvolto nelle indagini sul mostro e ucciso il 7 agosto A spingere il testimone, che ha vissuto alcuni anni a contatto con i sardi trapiantati in Toscana, a presentarsi alla Polizia, e' stata la trasmissione 'Porta a Porta' del 26 settembre scorso dedicata all'inchiesta sul mostro.

Il settimanale tuttavia precisa che ''Vigna non e' stato raggiunto da alcun avviso di garanzia'' e che ''gli inquirenti fiorentini stanno ancora valutando l'attendibilita' del testimone. Non e' quindi da escludere che, all'esito dei riscontri, possa essere smascherata una calunnia nei confronti di Vigna. E' dunque possibile che gli atti vengano presto trasmessi alla procura di Genova, l'ufficio giudiziario competente ad esaminare questioni che riguardano i magistrati toscani''.

Firenze Stasera Vigna Parte 3 michaela barilari. Gas, Eni nel piu' grande progetto al mondo gnl in Qatar QuotidianoNazionale. Fisicaro e del Vigna parla di giustizia fulvioascensi. Vigna su Mafie e su Mastella e De Magistris. Pierluigi Vigna ai microfoni della Ostuni 26 marzo Pier Luigi Vigna presenta "In difesa della giustizia" giornaledipuglia. Francesco Bruno mostrodifirenze. Il giusto processo in Italia meetingdirimini.

Chi spinse la mafia verso la deriva terroristica? Quali segreti tacciono I funerali dell'ex procuratore nazionale antimafia. In prima fila durante la cerimonia funebre il capo della polizia Manganelli e il

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