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Phosphorus trichloride. Iron sulphate. Tantalum pentachloride. Potassium permanganate. Ammonium dihydrogenorthophosphate. Hydrogen peroxide. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate. Vanadium trichloride oxide. Dipotassium peroxodisulphate. Barium sulfate. Diammonium peroxodisulphate. Zinc sulphate.

Butyl anthranilate. Potassium nitrate. Sodium sulphate. Sodium sulphite. Magnesium hydrogenorthophosphate. Trimagnesium bis orthophosphate. Magnesium sulphite. Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate. Potassium bromate. Potassium bromide. Potassium iodate. Potassium nitrite. Dipotassium hydrogenorthophosphate. Disodium dihydrogenpyrophosphate. Sodium chlorite. Calcium bis dihydrogenorthophosphate. Pentasodium triphosphate. Tricalcium bis orthophosphate. Cerium trifluoride. Copper chloride.

Iron dichloride. Lead dichloride. Copper sulphate. Strontium sulphate. Silver nitrate. Sodium thiosulphate. Tin dichloride. Manganese dichloride. Potassium hydrogen sulphite. Ammonium sulphamidate. Sodium chlorate. Sodium chromate. Sodium dithionite. Sodium metaborate, anhydrous. Disodium peroxodisulphate. Calcium sulfate. Arsenic acid. Calcium arsenate. Potassium dichromate. Tripotassium orthophosphate. Calcium hypochlorite. Potassium perchlorate. Potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate.

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Koblenzer Strasse Andernach Germany. Taki Kavalieratou 7 Kifisia Attica Greece. Bachfeld 17 Alberndorf Austria. Riedstrasse 2 Steinheim Germany. In the time of Hans Wendel Mall the neighboring town of Durlach probably had a great fascination for the youth of Sollingen. The powerful tower on the top of the Turmberg was at that time over years old, but it is not likely that everyone was allowed to climb to its summit as they are allowed today. Around the tower with its huge shelterwall had formerly been a fortress which in had been the seat of the margrave Rudolf I.

Soon after this time it was conquered, together with the tovrn of Durlach, by the emperor Page Twenty-five Rudolf of Habsburg, and seven years later it was conquered by the bishop Konrad of Strasbourg at which time it was partially destroyed. There existed neither telegraph nor telephone nor newspaper at that time and all the historical occurrences of universal importance were published and made known by oral transmission.

The wars contributed a great deal to the conveying of current happenings, even to the remotest villages, for the foreigners who came informed the inhabitants of the events of the world. When Hans Wendel Mall was 9 years old, the war already mentioned, had broken out in the valley of the Pfinz and spread fear and terror over the whole district of Durlach.

After the battle of Nordlingen the troops went through Pforzheim and Sollingen to Durlach, the residence of one of their enemies, and where ever they went they caused terrible destruction. At that time the neighboring village of Konigsbach was burned by the imperial Croats.

This information has been found in the history of the village Nonnenweier, and conditions were the same everywhere. When the Westphalian peace put an end to the horrible slaughter Hans Wendel Mall was 23 years old. In the meantime he had learned the trade of a linen weaver, and about five years after the Westphalian peace he settled in Durlach.

The family name of his wife is not known, neither is the name of her parents known nor where they had lived. After he had been married only 12 years Hans Wendel Mall died. If we realize that during the Thirty Years War the population of Germany had been reduced from 18 million to 7 million and the extreme privations, hardships and misery which these men had undergone, we may well conclude that Hans Wendel Mall had been one of the victims of the distressful times following the war.

When he died he was only 39 years old. Her oldest son, Hans Ludwig Mall, who married a widow at Durlach, died when 28 years old, without offspring. So it happens that his brother, Johann Erhard, became the father of the Sollingen Malls with their 17 different family branches. The author tried but was unable to learn anything more about her or her offspring.

The population of Sollingen which at the beginning of the Thirty Years Page Twenty-six War was about people had been reduced to about at the end of the war. The oldest parish register the book with the baptism register begins on May 8, Exactly years later from this date, the oldest daughter of the tall Joseph, Margarete Mall, was born in Sollingen.

Proportionately very little is reported in the parish registers of Sollingen about the destruction caused by the French. Pests and diseases had everywhere swept away, as already indicated, many people, especially in the years In the year there were deaths at Niefern, a village near Pforzheim, caused by pestilence. During the eight years, , persons died at Pforzheim from hunger and pestilence.

At Ulm in the year , 18, died, 15, from pestilence. Some were killed by savage animals as there were still wolves in Germany at that time. In , seven years after the end of the Thirty Years War, it was required of each of the foresters that they kill at least two wolves every year. In many districts neither the pastors nor the school teachers could earn their livelihood, and were compelled to move away or run the risk of dying of hunger.

In the whole district of Durlach there was only one school teacher left at Berghausen and one at Sollingen. The latter had been forced to live without a salary from to On August 21, , peace was declared. In spite of this agreement the French soldiers made rapacious raids in the valley of the Pfinz. They would sally out from Philipsburg, a town which had been adjudicated to them in the Westphalian peace, to extort contributions from the people.

In this manner in J. Another incident of that time has been recorded. A certain corporal came to Sollingen with five horsemen to extort money. There were only 8 or 10 citizens living in Sollingen and they were very cruelly treated by the raiders. One rich man, Andre, who lived at Konigsbach who is said to have emigrated from Sweden to Konigsbach provided protection for these people.

He was willing to pay them florins providing they would mortgage to him the forest on the Stranzberg. In their helpless condition there was nothing they could do but sign the document and receive the money which they in turn had to give to these French extorters. To the present day the forest on the Stranzberg has remained in the possession of the Andre family. As Menzingen is only 15 miles from Sollingen it is probable that Hans Wendel Mall knew this pastor, or was related to him.

While it is not possible to trace the forebearers of Hans Wendel Mall with a certainty, we can see that there has been found records about many Malls living before his time who most assuredly were his direct forebearers or related to him. General-Landesarchiv in Karlsruhe. In a mustering of the subjects who were required to do military service in the district Durlach in June , there appears besides Hans Wendel Mall of Sollingen, also Hans Michel Mall of Berghausen.

In the year this man is listed as having a musket, but a Joseph Mall who was also of Berghausen came without a weapon. In the report it stated that he had the means to arm himself. In a later list of the same year, both Malls of Berghausen are listed among the armed men. This act was not difficult if both villages were of the same denomination.

In the Berain Berghausen Nr. The man in question can only be Hans Wendel Mall in Sollingen, because another man of this name is not known in Berghausen. Of this time there are no Berains existing. In the year his heirs are then obliged for the delivery of the wine-interest that was resting on this vineyard. Now there can be no more doubt that the progenitor of the Malls in Sollingen, Hans Wendel Mall was born in Berghausen. The parish records of Berghausen cannot be examined in behalf of the affair because the earliest parish book begins The earlier parish books were lost in the war In Berghausen the Malls can be traced till the end of the 14th century.

Beyond that time there are no more authentic memorials, but it may be assumed that further back Malls were living in Berghausen. Page Twenty-eight In the different centuries the following bearers of the name Mall have been ascertained in Berghausen: Berain Kollegiat-church in Ettlingen Nr. Berain Convent Gottesau Nr. In page of the same Berain in a supplement of a later handwriting is mentioned one Wedal Wendel Mall, who must have lived about the year In the year he was most probably under age minor and in the year he seems to have already died.

Document Berghausen of Apr. Klein Jakob Mall. April 18,, Nr. Hof daselbst als Erblehen. Geben auf Zinstag nach Sonntag Quasimodogenity Original u. Papier Kopie Conv. Berain Durlach Amt. Berain Convent Gottesaue Nr. Berain Berghausen Nr. In later years the beraines were brought to the newest state of things by striking out the names of the deceased proprietors and borderers of the described landed property and by subjoining the new proprietors and the new borderers, who by heritage or purchase had come in the possession of the fields, meadows and vineyards.

June 15, - Nr. Erblehensrevers des Theng Mall u. Baden und fiber den Herrschaftl. Ackerhof zu Berghausen. Page Twenty-nine 1 Siegel Berghausen. Papier Original Conv. Document Berghausen of Dec. Berain Weingarten Nr. This berain was still during the Thirty Years War written down, a certain time fixation is not recognizable. After the name Mall is not found at all in the documents of Berghausen which deal with landed property, not in the oldest parish-register which begins in the year Towards the end of the 17th century the tribe Mall in Berghausen died out.

The last Mall fell a victim to the Orleanish predatory war ; Wilhelm Mall, who with his wife Regina and one child in the year died at the age of How deeply incisive this French war was affecting the population, may be derived from the following figures: Of citizens in the district Durlach, only survived the war. In Berghausen of 58 citizens 50 perished, among them, as already indicated, the last bearer of the name Mall. The later emersion of Malls in Berghausen came from immigration from Sollingen.

The tribe of the Malls was transplanted to Sollingen by Hans Wendel Mall and there it has bloomed for years. It can finally be stated that the tribe Mall today is provable inveterated in the valley of the Pfinz Berghausen and Sollingen and belongs to the ancient settled tribes of this valley. His godfathers were Hans Erhard Mayer and Ludwig Grossman and his godmothers were the wives of these two men. Since his father died when he was a little boy, not yet 4 years old, he hardly remembered him.

It is rather certain that Johann Erhard attended the public school at Sollingen and we may believe that he learned to read and write. It is probable that he also learned the trade of a linenweaver. When Johann Erhard Mall was 25 years old he married Anna Maria, whose maiden name is not known, but it is known that she was of Roman Catholic faith and came from the Rottweil district.

She was born on Oct. Her husband survived her about 15 years and died on Feb. This couple had seven sons of whom the third died in infancy. Of the important events which occurred in the life time of Johann Erhard Mall, we mention the following: When he was five years old, an earthquake in the Caucasus swept 80, men away. When he was 15 years old, French infantry men with a detachment of dragoons came to Bruchsal and the entire town was burned with the exception of 36 buildings.

When he was 20 years old, the city of Strasbourg , the capital of the Alsace was usurped by the French although there had not been a war. In his 21st year, a comet appeared in the sky with an enormous tail, like a gigantic rod, which was considered by the people of that time as an omen of approaching fearful events. The oldest inhabitants said that in the year another comet of the same size made its appearance and a short time later the Thirty Years War began.

The Christendom of that time was seized with terror because everyone knew what it meant for all the Christians in Europe if the Turks should succeed in conquering the Christian countries. Two years before his marriage, a healing spring had been discovered in the neighboring village of Langensteinbach, and thereafter for years Langen- steinbach was famous for its bathing resort.

Seven years after his marriage, 54 cities and villages on the isle of Sicily were destroyed by a fearful earth quake, in which about , people lost their lives. It was similar to the one of the 28th of June, in Japan. The pastors by whom he was instructed in the Evangelical faith before his confirmation were a pastor of Pforzheim, Johann Jakob Fleischman, who was pastor of Sollingen for three years, a contemporary of pastor Johann Peter Mall in Menzingen and Johann Jakob Rothenbach of Durlach, who was a pastor of Sollingen for 13 years.

In his long life Johann Erhard made, besides these two clergymen, the acquaintance of 13 more pastors who succeeded one Page Thirty-one another as pastors of Sollingen. In the time of Johann Erhard Mall and of his children, the church discipline was wielded more severely than in the present time, and he himself had once experienced it. It was the duty of the pastor, together with the burger-master and some presbyters, to protest against idolatry, superstition, sorcery, cursing, swearing, blasphemy and profaning of the name of God, and against neglecting the sermons and services.

These two places belonged at that time to the dukes of Wiirrtemburg. The most terrifying occurrence which Johann Erhard experienced was the burning of the town Durlach by the French in the year and the destroying of Sollingen and of the neighboring villages.

Against the French troups there were only men under the command of the baron Schilling of Cannstatt to oppose them and they could not defend themselves against the cruel attack of the French. The people of Durlach, after hastily providing themselves with the most necessary things, had to leave Durlach and go to Langensteinbach. On the following day the French set fire to the town of Durlach and the fine castle and the whole town were destroyed by fire.

In the years the French also destroyed the cities Fleidelberg, Worms, Speyer, Mannheim, Sinsheim, Bretten, Bruchsal, Pforzheim, Rastatt, and the castle at Baden-Baden, and many castles that were situated near the Rhine, and as already mentioned, Durlach with its superb castle.

In ten years it was destruction without measure. When Sollingen was pillaged the second time Johann Erhard Mall was just 30 years old. It is not known where he and his family fled when this catastrophic came over Sollingen. When he was 53 years old, his homeland Baden was rescued from the French by the peace-treaty of Rastatt.

For many, many years his country and his village of Sollingen, and he himself, were sorely impoverished and thrown into misery in consequence of the French extortions and violations. Johann Erhard Mall reached an age of over 80 years. He saw his children grown to manhood, and at the time of his death he had nine grandsons, of which, Johannes became the great-grand-father of the tall Christoph, the Tall Joseph and the tall Bernhard.

Waldo and his followers sought to revive primitive pureness of living. The valley of the Pfinz is feet above sea level and is a lovely valley with green meadows which are surrounded or limited by counter-valleys or hills. The climate is mild and the ground fertile. There are also many quince, peach and nut trees. During the last 25 years the number of big nut trees has been considerably reduced because high prices were paid for the lumber from nut trees.

If one approaches Sollingen by train either from the west or from the east the original Sollingen, meaning the village on the southern side of the railway, or of the Pfinz, appears to the traveler like an orchard in which the houses are partly hidden. For the last hundred years another remarkable landmark which had been standing opposite the church in the parish garden was an enormous acacia tree, the trunk of which had a circumference of 14 feet.

The tree was cut down in at which time its age was about years. The huge chestnut tree in the cemetery is now years old. In the fields of Sollingen winter wheat, rye, summer wheat, barley, oats, clover, beetroots, potatoes, turnips, poppy, rape seed and tobacco are cultivated, the last three however not in large quantities. All kinds of vegetables are grown in the gardens of Sollingen; cabbage, beans, peas, rhubarb, onions, carrots, turnips, spinach, tomatoes, radishes, celery, charlocks, corn-salad, water cress, cabbage-lettuce, endive and black helle-bore.

In former years the hills around Sollingen were covered with vine-stocks and even 80 years ago almost every peasant had one or several vineyards. The inhabitants of Sollingen are fond of flowers and most of them keep flowers on their window sills or in their rooms. Some of the flowers may be mentioned; snow-drops, violets, narcissus, primroses, forget-me-nots, tulips, many kinds of roses, elder, double wallflowers, pansies, hyacinths, geranium, clove-pink and double pinks, lillies, stock-gilly flowers, lions mouth and semper vivum.

In the spring of the year, the children of Sollingen gain much Page Thirty-three pleasure from gathering May-flowers, primroses and violets from the forests and meadows. The love for flowers at Sollingen is interwoven in the customs and ceremonies of the people. Flowers are used profusely in their confirmations, weddings, birthdays and deaths. The population of Sollingen has well doubled itself during the past years.

During the time from to , new houses were built, most of which were on the northern side of the Pfinz and the railroad. In the year the population of Sollingen was not including displaced persons nor taking into account the soldiers still held as prisoners of war and 74 missing in the war. The village of Sollingen, according to a document in the convent Hirschau of the year , came into being over years ago.

The original name was Saldingen which was used for some years until the year At this time the name was again changed to Seldigen. Martin Luther died and at that time was changed to Sellingen. Some thirty years later the name was again changed to the present day Sollingen. Often when there was no heir to a family their land was willed to one of the convents which existed at that time. The people have worked out a definite plan of crop rotation for the three sectors of land so that the same crops are not grown in the same field in any two successive years.

The three sectors of arable land are subdivided into about 76 portions of cultivated ground of which each has a name of its own. The derivation of these names indicate that in these parts Roman settlements existed as early as years ago. Two names hint to the time when the inhabitants of Sollingen were still heathen. Another two names indicate that in very ancient times a castle must have existed near Sollingen.

In these ancient times 12 Lords, most of them living outside Sollingen, had at different epochs possessions of land at Sollingen. Also in the very ancient times there were seven convents which possessed land in Seldingen.

The Convent in Weissenburg in the Alsace. In the year , the entire village of Seldingen belonged to this convent. The convent also retained the right to appoint the pastor of the parish Seldingen. These Page Thirty-four rights and the land of Seldingen were held by the convent as late as the year Convent Hirschau.

In the year both the rights and the property grants of this convent were enlarged. In the year all of the property and rights of the convent were transferred to the margraves of Baden. The Convent Herrenalb. This convent was inaugurated in the year and by rich donations soon became quite wealthy.

In the year a canonic Ysenbard bestowed upon the convent two acres of vineyard which yielded gallons of wine. The Convent Frauenalb. This convent is said to have been founded in the year Hospital Baden-Baden. During the years , this hospital was one of the many that was founded at Seldingen.

This hospital also retained property possessions at Seldingen. The Kollengiatstift Baden Baden. If the different fields of Sollingen could tell their history of the last thousand years, what a tale we would have! Citizens; 2. Tenants; and Slaves. The citizens were in every respect better off than the two other classes as they had many privileges which the others did not enjoy.

The slaves accordingly lived under the worst conditions. When a man died, his Lord claimed the best piece of cattle and it was handed over to him. If there were no cattle, the value of such a cow or animal had to be handed over to the family of the Lord. The Episcopate Speyer had slaves in Sollingen in the year The lease for a leasehold remained unchanged for hundreds of years, but in times of extreme distress the Lord would grant intermission or cessation of the rent for some years.

At this time there were 87 acres of ploughland waste and on their petition the tenants of these fields were freed in the year from the lease for six years. In the peasant war of not many of the inhabitants of Sollingen were entangled and Sollingen had afterwards to pay no satisfaction. After this cruel and terrible war the population of Sollingen was reduced to a mere 10 citizens and the near-by town of Berghausen to 32 citizens and 19 widows.

While in the year 31 children had been baptized, the year saw only nine baptisms. The peace lasted hardly 20 years. In the year the war came to an end but ten years later the same French king Louis XIV began another predatory war.

Sollingen suffered in this mischevious war almost as much as in the Thirty Years War. In September , a French army of 80, soldiers crossed the frontiers without declaration of war. At once they began over a wide area to extort money and natural products. By October 21, , the few citizens of Sollingen had already paid florins, and Durlach florins.

On December 17, the French demanded Maker bushels of oats, rye and kernals, which they received. On August 14, , they devastated the whole Palatinate and completely destroyed the town of Durlach. On this same day they also arrived at Sollingen robbing and plundering. From the church they robbed the vessels used in the Holy Communion, tankard, chalice, silverplate and the altar-cloth.

On Easter night the town of Durlach was again plundered by a French scouting division. Two months later the French returned to Sollingen and those that were able to flee, fled. They pillaged the village as they had done two years before. The three bells and all the other booty of the church were completely plundered. From the valley of the Pfinz the French army marched to Pforzheim which they pillaged and burned.

On September 25, , they moved to Wiirtemberg. There they burned the town of Calw, the convent Hirschau, etc. The castle of Remchingen was also burned. The French returned from these raids with many trains of stolen goods through the valley of the Pfinz. Hardly a year passed in which the inhabitants of Sollingen were not required to furnish quarters for large numbers of troops including German combatants.

In they again came pillaging to Sollingen. Even after the treaty of peace October 30, a band of French remained at Sollingen, Berghausen and Grotz. What calamity and disaster this war of nine years duration had brought over Sollingen and over the whole district can be derived from the reduced number of inhabitants. Most of the deceased citizens 28 died in Sollingen and 7 outside Sollingen died at an age between 30 and 40 years.

Less than four years after the signing of the peace at Ryswick a new war, the War of the Spanish Succession began. This was a result of the death of the childless king of Spain Charles II and brought additional hardships upon the residents of Sollingen. In November Sollingen was required to quarter 81 imperial soldiers and after their departure they were required to provide quarters for soldiers consisting of five companies of troops. Over Christmas a company of dragoons arrived and after them a company of Badish and Hessian troops.

A number of men of Sollingen were among the whom the district of Durlach had to place at the disposal of the military to build fortifications. The summer of was an especially bad time. In the spring the French army moved through the valley of the Pfinz via Pforzheim to pillage Wiirttem- berg and retreated again in July When the French came they invaded the church, threw down the bells and carried them off as they had done 16 years previously.

They also took with them everything from the church that had any value. They tore down the pulpit, burned the stools and shattered the windows and doors of the vestry. Then they went to the parsonage house where they did great havoc. There they spoiled the well, shattered the stoves in the house, tore out the windows from their frames, burned the banks, broke out the planks of the floor in the rooms, dug out the slabs of the floor in the kitchen and the bricks in the baking stove.

Neither did they spare the stable for they robbed the pastor of his cow and her calf, several hogs, and all of his hens. From his cellar they took 24 gallons of wine and from his drawer 36 florins. The loss of books, furniture, etc. They also pillaged the entire village, and the neighboring villages of Berghausen, Grotzinger and Dulach. The total loss of the entire village of Sollingen was 11, florins.

The following year was also a year of tribulation, quartering, furnishing horses for transport work, damages of all kinds, etc. From October to May the village Sollingen had a loss of 3, florins. In December soldiers of the imperial army burned the fences around the gardens of the district and stole turnips, cabbage and fruits. From the year to , the parish of Sollingen was without a pastor.

During these years the pastor of Berghausen cared for the parish Sollingen. In , through a petition, the inhabitants of Sollingen asked for a pastor of their own. The congregation at that time consisted of persons which in time was increased by immigrants from Wiirttemberg and Switzerland. In the year war broke out again. In May the French moved through the valley of the Pfinz to Wiirttemberg. Remembering the former abominations of the Page Thirty-seven French, many inhabitants of Sollingen fled.

The French paid nothing for what they ate nor for any of the provisions which they demanded and took. They also violated several persons, two of which were fatally injured, Christoph Marx and Jacob Wegele. However in general the French treated the inhabitants of Sollingen much better than they had in former years. Now for the first time the inhabitants of the valley of the Pfinz had the opportunity of making the acquaintance of the Russians for in and around Grotzingen there was an army of 15, Russians of whom a part moved through Sollingen to Pforzheim.

When from September 24 to September 30, , three French divisions marched through Sollingen, the inhabitants had to give them oats and hay. From September 11, to September 30, , there was a war-magazine at Sollingen and great damage was caused by the Austrian-Hungarian troops. From July 15, to August 28, , these troops were quartered in the villages around Durlach. The corn field along the street outside Sollingen and the meadows were ruined by the Hungarian troops on July On August 31, , a detachment of French Hussars came to Sollingen and made requisition for 16 Simri of oats and three and a half hundred weights of hay, without paying the bill for them to the inkeeper Reichenbacher.

On July 9, , the neighboring village Grotzinger had a loss of 17, florins, caused by the French. Now the Austrians treated Baden as enemies. The Imperial troops attacked the French Hussars which had orders to transport 20 carts of ammunition through the valley of the Pfinz and on the night of September 3, , the Imperial riders caused considerable damage at Sollingen.

Again during the summer of , Sollingen quartered troops. From the beginning of until the end of September and from November 2, until November 4, , Durlach was garrisoned by the French. In the year the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte compelled the Margrave of Baden to join him with 3, soldiers which number was afterwards increased to 6, soldiers.

A few days afterward the inhabitants of Sollingen saw the emperor Napoleon also drive down the same street, eastward. On his way back in December , Napoleon came through Sollingen once again. Most of them lost their lives for only of these Badisli soldiers returned. Page Thirty-eight In the war against Austria in the country of Baden had to supply 6, soldiers.

The losses in these Badish troops were: 56 officers; 1, soldiers. On October 24, , Napoleon came from Austria through the valley of the Pfinz and returned to France. With an army of , men he reached Moscow, the old capital of Russia, on September 14, His illusion was turned into a terrible disaster and totally defeated he fled from Russia to France.

Of the Badish troops, hardly 50 men reached their homeland. Of this number was Philipp Jakob Mussgnug, of Sollingen, who, from consequence of all the privations and over-exertion, died in March of The history of our home village Sollingen has shown us in short outlines how the inhabitants of Sollingen in the last three centuries have suffered by the terrible wars, how many of them have perished, many were impoverished, reduced and thrown into misery.

After the dethronement of Napoleon I in the year there followed a longer period of outward peace. The February revolution of the year , brought in France the dethronement of Louis Philipp of Orlean, where-upon France became a republic for four years. With the revolution in Baden in the year , we enter into the modern times. The revolutionary spirit of France had taken possession of many of the people in Baden.

This movement was nourished and promoted by the great dearth from which was caused by a prolonged drouth like that of the year Thousands of poor people were in distress. The discordance and discontent reached such a high degree that in bread riots broke out in many places.

The aim of the insurgents in Baden was the abolishment of the monarchy and the inauguration of the republic. They well knew that without the help of the soldiers they would not have much success, therefore they tried to get the military on their side, and they succeeded.

A military revolution broke out in the garrisons Rastatt, Bruschsal and Karlsruhe. The latter of May 14, , was fatal, which will be mentioned later on. In every village in Baden a liberty association Volksverein was formed, in which indistinct ideas of freedom were discussed. Discoursers from Durlach and Karlsruhe often came to the Volksverein at Sollingen to make speeches and to cheer for the republic. The whole nation was in a feverish commotion. All of the men from 20 to 30 years of age were induced to enter the Volks wehr.

Their drilling ground was located about yards east of what is now the railroad station. As there were but few usable guns to be obtained, old rusty rifles, scythes, flails, and cudgels from the forests of Sol- ligen were used as arms for the group. The sergeant, of course, was armed with a sabre.

On May 9, , the riot began in Rastatt. This was in vain for the prince was compelled to flee in order to save his own life. A good deal of the population, however, was loyal to the Grand-duke and wished to retain the old order. In order to suppress the monarchial movement in the nation, the soldiers were sent to different parts of the country to keep peace. While the encounters between the Prussians and the Badish mutinous troops were going on near Durlach, the villages of the district Durlach had to supply provisions to the Prussians.

The burger-master of Sollingen, Johann Georg Zilly age 29, is credited as having used his resolution and courage to prevent many outrageous deeds. Being a decided opponent of the revolution, Zilly was often in danger of physical harm had any of the revolutionists dared to attact him. When the insurgents were defeated near Durlach, they fled to Rastadt, which, being a fortress, was still the safest place for them.

On August 23, , the insurgents were defeated completely and, following their surrender, the grand-duke Leopold returned to his capital Karlsruhe. Part of the nation looked on them as heroes and martyrs. The unions and associations which were suspected of democratic pursuits were dissolved by the government.

Among these organizations was the singing club of Sollingen of which twenty-five young men emigrated to America and but two of them returned to Sollingen during the years that followed. Under the fifty year reign of Grand-duke Friedrich I better times came and the wounds of the bad years were healed. Grand-duke Friedrich I did not forget the promise he had made to Gottfied Wenz of Sollingen who had helped him escape during the revolution, and in , when his body-coach-man died, he offered this honourable post to Gottfied Wenz.

Wenz declined this offer, however, as his wife did not want to leave Sollingen and live in the capital. Two inhabitants of Sollingen were listed as having participated in the war of They were Gottfried Wenz and Karl Zilly. Corporal Zilly was one of the seven dragoons who went with Graf Zeppelin to reconnoiter the Alsace. Corporal Zilly was wounded and captured by the enemy during this war.

After the war he settled again in Sollingen where he became manager of the post-office and remained in this position for 28 years. Karl Zilly lived until and his burial was conducted by Reverend Spornoder of Stebbach. None fell during this war but four were wounded, including Karl Zilly.

On March 12, , the peace festival was celebrated in Sollingen. In the year the warrior-union in Sollingen was inaugurated. For 25 years the Zeppelin-rider Karl Zilly was president of this union. During the first World War this union contributed to honour those men of Sollingen who had lost their lives in the war and when a veteran of died at Sollingen, the members of the union rendered the last military honours to him.

The same was done when a wounded soldier died at Sollingen. The first World War had world-wide dimensions. In the beginning men of Sollingen were levied for the army, 13 per cent of the population of Soliingen had at once joined the army and among these 85 were volunteers.

A hard winter followed in and Sollingen tables contained a chief diet of turnips as did the entire of Germany. Again in , for the third time, Sollingen mourned for its bells. This time the bells were taken from the tower of the church to be used by the German army.

As so many men were called to arms, the number of teachers was also reduced until only five teachers were left in Sollingen, each of whom had to instruct pupils. On June 28, , the peace of Versailles was concluded which made Germany very poor. Inflation that followed ruined every stock in the banks. In April the presbytery resolved to purchase two new bells. One year later the bells were brought to Sollingen and again called the congregation at Easter to the service.

How the inflation that swept Germany affected prices can be seen from the following table. It was a great help during these times that several friends in America, who had emigrated from Sollingen, sent money to help pay for the organ and for the bells of the church. During the year , 79 children were confirmed, 42 boys and 37 girls. Sollingen had never before had such a large confirmation class.

As the valley of the Pfinz is a high-way and thorough-fare for traffic, it contributed thereby a good deal to the tribulations and hardships of the wars to the inhabitants of Sollingen more than other villages had to suffer which were situated in more remote sections of the country. There were still other afflictions, however, not connected with the wars, which were caused by nature herself. In , the damage caused by the inundation of the Pfinz amounted Page Forty-one to 7, florins of damage at Sollingen.

The saw-mill was entirely carried away by the floods. Great frosts were listed as appearing in the years , , , , , , , , , , and in The vine-yards and fruit trees were ruined to a great extent during these years. Epidemics also added to the hardships of the people of Sollingen. In , the bloody flux and in , dysentery, typhus, and pustule were raging at the same time.

Returning once more to the Pfinz, had the river bed been made broader and in a straight line, fewer catastrophies would have occurred. In former times there was more water in the Pfinz and much timber was transported from Wildferdin- gen to Durlach. As the inhabitants of Sollingen saw the river daily they did not realize that the water supply was decreasing. Philipp Jakob Mall, Clay Center, Kansas, who returned to his former home for a visit, was the first person to notice this fact.

The friends who were with him at the time he made this statement did not agree with his assertion and laughed at him. When ex- burgermeister Franz Zilly heard of this dispute he looked into the matter and came to the same conclusion that Mr. Mall was right. He concluded that the villages Stupferich, Griinwettersbach, Hohenwettersbach, Busenbach, Reichen- bach, etc. This was spring water and underground water which was being lost for the Pfinz, and it was forced to take another way through the conduit to the said villages.

Since the year Sollingen and Kleinsteinbach were getting their water by conduit from a spring of the fields belonging to Konigsbach, this water was also lost to the Pfinz. Colza, wheat, clover, beet-roots, potatoes and tobacco were introduced in Sollingen agriculture about In , young fruit trees were purchased for the inhabitants and chestnut trees were planted in the forests of Sollingen. This garden was responsible for the yearly increase of trees in the fields of Sollingen.

The stone bridge which was built across the Pfinz in the year had cost 1, florins. A toll was levied upon the livestock transported over the bridge in order to pay for its construction. Within the village two more narrow iron bridges were built for human travel only. The second was built in near the eastern end of Sollingen. The railway from Durlach to Wilferdingen was opened for traffic on August 10, The following year it was extended through Muhlacker and Stuttgart.

The continual growth of Sollingen made it necessary to enlarge the church Page Forty-two in order to seat the new members of the congregation which were listed in In the cemetery of Sdllingen also had to be enlarged in order to meet the need of the growing population.

In the town house of Sdllingen was also enlarged at a cost of 70, mark. Architect Paul Mall, Jr. In there were pupils in Sdllingen and only one school house which is standing close to the cemetery. In a second school building was erected near the town house and in the third was constructed on the northern side of the church.

On July 11, , a building was erected for this purpose. The telephone was first introduced in , the water conduit in , and electricity in Since the bells of the church have been rung by an electric motor. The present pastor of Sdllingen is Rev.

Julius Zimmer who has served as pastor since April His predecessor was pastor Robert Wilckens. Gemeindebote Sdllingen. His predecessor had been Mr. Franz Zilly. The author is indebted to Mr. Reichenbacher and his clerk Mr.

In , the population of this Sdllingen was There are now business houses in Sdllingen. There are seven bakeries in Sdllingen. The bakery of bakermaster August Mall has been there sixty years. There are seven inns in Sdllingen. There are five slaughter houses in Sdllingen. The number of cattle in Sdllingen were reduced by a large number—the French were supplied with in and also by the long drouth of There are goats and one sheep in the village.

Four hundred ten liters of milk are sent daily from Sdllingen to the cities. Each day laborers go from Sdllingen to the cities to work. Fifty of them go to Pforzheim and others go to Karlsruhe, Durlach, and other places. Most of them travel by train but many by bicycle. Page Forty-three There are 1, bicycles, 35 motor cycles, five automobiles and two trucks in Sollingen. There are eight civic organizations in Sollingen. A number of remarkable men from several different families of Sollingen people have distinguished themselves as guides and benefactors to their fellow men or as pioneers and leaders in scientific work.

Johann Christoph Frommel, the son of the village mayor. Johann Christoph Frommel was born in , became a clergyman and was pastor in Mengen, Weil, and Betberg. He died in Two great grandsons of this clergyman have gained a name for themselves even outside of Germany. Emil Frommel was born in , is well known as court-chaplain and as a popular writer. Emil died in His brother Max Frommel was a Lutheran pastor and in his later years general superintendent in Celle.

Reverend Mall served as a pastor in America for thirty-one years. Reverend Wenz became a missionary of the Basel Mission in China and remained at that post until He is now a pastor in Karlsruhe. Reverend Reichenbacher lost his life in Gengenbach, Baden in July when he was overrun by a Polish automobile. The printing office of J. Reiff had a good reputation far beyond Baden and it was a fountain from which much good literature was spread far and wide. Reiff reached an age of seventy five years and died in We will now turn to those men of Sollingen who were or are working for the physical or psychical welfare of their fellow men.

None of the five men we will mention were born in Sollingen, but the father of each of them was born and spent his youth there. Philipp Jakob Kussmaul, the father of the famous university professor of medicine Dr. Karl Adolf Kussmaul was born in Sollingen on December 23, Reverend Schumacher then helped and encouraged him in his desire to learn.

He taught him Greek and Latin for up to that time the boy had only attended the public school. Reverend Schumacher also induced a doctor at Durlach, Amtschirurg Karcher to take the boy as an apprentice. Karcher instructed him about the bones of man and about the treatment of wounds. Sometimes he took the boy with him to see his patients. He then received further education at Bruchsal. He then joined the Badish army but fell ill with typhus which the soldiers had brought from Russia.

He recovered and then Page Forty-four studied by private tuition to pass the matriculation. This he successfully did in Heidelberg and Wurzburg. In Dr. He died in from an apoplectic attack. His celebrated son Adolph reached the age of 80 years. In the first known emigrants of Sollingen came to America and the reports which they returned must have been favourable. The young Franz Mall followed their example in After two years he returned to Sollingen for a short time and persuaded his five brothers to come to America.

They had three daughters and one son. Franz Mall was an intelligent, diligent and economical farmer and became prosperous. On January 24, , his wife died after several years of melancholy and dejection. From the University of Chicago he went to the new medical school in Baltimore. He died at the age of 55 after an operation for gallstones.

Franklin Paine Mall made the results of his research known to the world in different publications, some in German but mostly in English, which comprised 1, pages. He was the youngest of the founders of Johns Hopkins Medical School but died as the first of them. Seventeen years after his death, one of his co-workers, Dr. He founded an Institute of Embryology. He established journals and organized scientific societies.

It was he who instigated the plan for full-time clinical teaching by which opportunities for research were made available to the clinics. Investigator, teacher, counselor, he was one of the outstanding medical leaders of his generation. As anatomist, his name will be placed with Bichat, von Baer and His.

His father, Franz Mall, after an absence of 34 years, returned for a visit in the fall of to Sollingen and in September he returned to America. There he stayed for another five years with his daughter Margarete and her family on his old farm. In the year he returned for the third time to Sollingen where he stayed five years. In the spring of he returned for the fourth time and took his sister Karoline with him. In the spring of he again returned to Sollingen. He lived another four years with his sister who, together with the relations, cared for him.

Seven weeks before his death the whole town of Baltimore was destroyed by fire, but his son Franklin with his family were saved with their home. Franz Mall died at Sollingen March 27, Two medical men in America, worthy to be mentioned here, are two doctors of whom their family and relations may justly be proud. Jakob O. Mall, Estes Park, Colorado and his brother Dr.

Werner W. Johann Jakob Mall attended the public school of Sollingen and later learned the trade of a wagon-maker in a neighboring town. After he had been a soldier for two years and after two of his brothers had emigrated to America, he also emigrated in the fall of and settled in the State of Kansas.

The blessings of his pious father were resting on him so that he could raise his position year by year. More than in the crops of his farm he was blessed by getting such a splendid wife and mother for their children, of whom five sons and two daughters are still living. Of the soldiers of his company, all, with the exception of a few men, had to serve three years. In each company, however, ten soldiers were exempted from military service after two years service.

Jakob Mall was one of these fortunate men. Page Forty-six During his military training he became aware of the definite possibility of another war in Germany. Having heard from his relatives in America who urged him to join them, he decided to sojourn to America thinking he would never be involved in any future wars. Further he learned of the land of plenty in America. While serving as an apprentice to a wagon-maker for four years, he had only the bare sustenance of life, going hungry many days.

In September , he emigrated to America. On the Atlantic Ocean they had a terrible storm but after a voyage of 11 days, they finally arrived safely in New York. The rail-way journey to Kansas lasted three days. When he arrived there, his uncle Jacob Mall gave him employment on his farm for 12 dollars a month. Later he found work as a carpenter, then he worked with a butcher as a joint owner, and later he was led on the way to farming, and he purchased 80 acres of land.

After 12 years he sold his farm and purchased a larger farm. By thrift and economy he and his wife were able to improve and increase their holdings, and in time their five sons gave them good help. Jacob O. Mall, Estes Park, Colorado, and Dr.

Mall, Ponca City, Oklahoma. It is worth while to have a glance over their lives. In the fall of , Jacob, the elder of these two brothers, interrupted his studies at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. He left San Francisco at high noon on January 15, , at the age of 23, for the Orient. This was a time when the Orient held a great lure for Americans. The tour included fascinating habitations in Syrea, Cyprus, Turkey, and Greece. On July 20, , he left Athens and landed in Naples, Italy, from where he toured Italy and Switzerland and thence to Germany where he was heartily welcomed by his relatives.

He finished the four year requirements in three years and graduated with the high honor of leading the class along with two four year students. He also played the leading roll on the stage in the school plays and upon his graduation was invited to Chicago to enter a stage career.

However, upon arriving in Chicago at the age of eighteen, he found the youngest member of the theatre players to be twenty-eight years old. During these years he continued his study of the stage and upon graduation was also awarded honorary membership to the fraternity of The National Collegiate Players. He then entered medical school at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine in Omaha, Nebraska, where he was joined by his older brother Jacob who had returned from the orient to also continue the study of medicine.

Though the study of the two sons tells much upon the pocket of their father, the parents, knowing that their sons were economical and diligent, gave their permission to study medicine. During their summer vacation these two students of medicine went to Iowa to make inquiries about their great cousin Professor Franklin Paine Mall who had died 11 years previously and whom they had not seen while living.

A lawyer, Mr. Trueblood, who was a nephew of Professor Mall, gave them all the information that they had sought. At the time when Jakob Mall was working as a salesman, Werner was attending summer school to be prepared to attend medical school in the fall of with his brother. Werner Mall was one of the leading actors in the University Plays and was making a fine name for himself on the stage. They were also reading much of the work of their cousin Professor Dr.

Franklin Mall who was recognized in America by medical men as an outstanding individual genius in his own line. A number of the leading professors from Omaha had known him personally and praised him highly and were following his methods of teaching.

In the winter of , Jacob Mall studied surgery and his brother eye, ear, nose and throat. In the summer vacation of , both were practicing with three doctors of reputation where they could get splendid experience and could learn a great deal about the practice of medicine.

Werner Mall was with an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist, Dr. They learned Page Forty-eight a lot in the general practice of medicine. In November and December they were on dispensary. In June both received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Army Hospitals. Only twenty-four students from all the Medical schools in the United States were accepted that year, and Jacob was one of them.

After spending 12 months in an army hospital in San Antonio, Texas, he was advanced to a specialty school in Washington, D. He had to serve one year as an officer and after that time he was at liberty to stay with the Army or practice for himself. He chose the latter and after his one year he opened a practice of his own in Estes Park, Colorado. This was interrupted by the war for 44 months when he had to serve in the Army in the far East as Captain, Major and Lieutenant Colonel.

We can state his military record without embellishment. Of his 44 months of military service, 36 of them were spent overseas. His first assignment was on a surgical team in a portable hospital in New Guinea. He nearly lost his life in a plane crash in the northern Australian wilds as he was being transported by plane to New Guinea for his first combat duty. This was his most rigorous and exhausting assignment and he remarked in one of his letters home that since he had survived this hazardous experience, he could face anything the future might offer—God be willing!

His wisdom and his wide experience as a general practioner of ten years, before he entered the war, made him invaluable to the medical corps and as he continued to work with zeal undiminished where ever he was ordered, his military record was one of repeated advancements, both professionally and militarily speaking.

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