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Poging om over de tijdspanne van een maand een soort gedicht te schrijven op Strava. Fietsen en daarna een paar regels tikken. En titels zo te kiezen dat er een doorlopend verhaal van een maand ontstaat. Voorzetsels, dat werkt. Klik op de afbeelding. Deze vond ik ook terug. De inleiding tot mijn hoofdstuk over Gibson en cyberpunk voor wat mijn PhD over postmodernistische Amerikaanse literatuur had moeten zijn.
Geschreven in Document laatst bewerkt op 1 juni Om u er maar even aan te herinneren dat de vragen die we ons nu stellen over technologie bijna 25 jaar geleden ook al gesteld werden. Ik knikte maar wat, gehinderd door mijn literatuurwetenschappelijke overwegingen, niet overtuigd. De vraag is door mijn hoofd blijven spoken. Droomt Wiliam Gibson in zijn cyberpunkromans van een mutatie? Droom hij van een nieuwe, veranderde mens?
Spreekt uit zijn verbeelding van de toekomstige wereld het verlangen naar een veranderde mens, een verbeterde versie -een snellere mens, met een grotere geheugenruimte en scherpere zintuigen? Droomt hij van een metamorfose? Waar de literatuur het af zou laten weten als het gaat om zaken als de invloed van kunstmatige intelligentie, de almacht van data, de media, biotechnologie en gentechnologie, daar zou de cyberpunk die behandelen. Ook dat verandert de mens.
De kwestie die de leidraad vormt van dit hoofdstuk is de spanning die er volgens mij in het werk van Gibson, en met name in Neuromancer, bestaat tussen enerzijds een fascinatie voor alle mogelijke bio technologische veranderingen van de mens de droom van een mutatie en het vasthouden aan een, volgens sommigen ouderwets, beeld van een autonoom subject. Het is de spanning tussen een vervagen van ooit fundamenteel geachte grenzen en het vasthouden aan of verlangen naar zuiverheid.
Deze spanning komt in zijn cyberpunktrilogie onder andere tot uiting in de verschillende personages. Droomt Gibson van een mutatie? Veel personages passen hun lichaam aan zodat ze optimaler kunnen functioneren, of beter kunnen genieten van de simstimsoaps ooglenzen met een hogere resolutie! Maar Neuromancer gaat ook over een AI die tracht te evolueren en zelfbewustzijn verwerft; de thematiek van mutatie wordt ook op dat niveau uitgespeeld.
Een cyborg, een vermenging van technologie en organisme is niet hetzelfde als een mutatie. De mutatie waar Gibson van droomt -als hij er inderdaad van droomt- is een essentieele verandering van de mens of een AI binnenin. Ik zocht op mijn laptop naar oude documenten, en vond deze, laatst geopend in , toen ik nog AiO Literatuurwetenschap was.
Dubbelklikken werkt natuurlijk niet, openen met TextWrangler levert dit op. Het is een aantekening voor eigen gebruik, dus met tik- en schrijffouten. Gaat uit van drie vooronderstellingen: 1. Postmoderne fictie is nog steeds een belangrijke force in onze cultuur. Er is interactie tussen kunst en technologie: door kunstenaars bedachte metaforen impliceren een andere manier van kijken. Zijn oorspronkelijke vraag was waarom het beeld van een soft machine zo vaak voorkomt in de postmoderne literatuur; daardoor kwam hij terecht bij de cybernetica, de vader van de computers.
Cybernetica werd ontwikkelt als een antwoord op de quantummechanica. Door de quantummechanica drong onzekerheid en toeval binnen in de wereld van de technologie, de cybernetica trachtte deze weer weg te dringen. Alle taal is gebaseerd op metaforen. En nog steeds het gevoel dat ik net begonnen ben. Soms dan. Bijna 21 jaar hetzelfde mailadres bij xs4all. Bijna 12 jaar WordPress. Bijna 12 jaar Facebook en ongebruikt. En zoveel andere al lang vergeten diensten.
Alweer een jaar of tien geen televisie. Alweer hoe lang geen papieren krant meer? Ook een jaar of tien. Alweer 4 jaar Strava. Net iets meer dan een jaar een smartphone. Elk langer commentaar heeft zeker woorden nodig, en ik heb andere dingen te schrijven.
Over wat ik er goed aan vind, over dingen die ik niet zo goed vind, maar die toch wel okay zijn, enzovoorts. A disclosure of my particular interest, perspective and background might be appropriate. Though I use WordPress for my blog. It does the trick — my website also displays fine on a smartphone or tablet as far as I know. I have not been part of the Publishing Toolkit project, but up to a certain point I have traced a similar trajectory.
Some of the remarks in the report will derive from that experience. Geert Lovink introduces the conference and workshop programme stating that it is important to raise the critical issues in the world of electronic publishing. He outlines the context of contemporary publishing with bookshops for printed books in decline, and ebooks still on the rise they have entered the market for educational publishing. The ambition of the Digital Publishing Toolkit programme is to make sure that we — I assume he means citizens, students, readers, artists, small publishers — are empowered by the tools we use, and are able to shape the tools and the discussion, instead of leaving it all to Google, Amazon and other large players that know how to bundle power, money and attention to shape tools, access to knowledge and culture.
Joost Kircz is the perfect speaker to kick off the conference, that is, if you want to emphasize the structural aspects underpinning computer publishing, and bring in knowledge acquired in more than 25 years in the business. He gives a perfect summary of what happens with editing and publishing when you work electronically. He stresses the fundamental issue: electronic publishing means storing data in code which is not human readable, but can be manipulated in many ways.
Markup needs to be structural, to enable output in different media. A good history lesson, in which he also quickly refers to Markdown as editing tool. Structured, coded data is the basis for electronic book production. Presentation and content should be strictly separated in electronic publication. The structured data can be used for output in a great variety of media. And then there are metadata of course. There is no going back to the old way of making books. This is what anybody should know, I guess, but this is also where the problems begin.
If you understand that it works this way, and that it has been like this ever since the s, one wonders why the workflows in publishing is still not based on this model. One exception being database publishing in the academic world. And why, given that this model is so clear and simple, is the reality of electronic publishing such a mess? Was the mess-up created by the sloppy implementation of HMTL, has the development of visual web design been a factor, or is it because of the dominance of Word?
The other issue is that the strict division is all fine when you deal with text. Then maintaining this division is either banal insignificant , or impossible to maintain. What an optimal editorial workflow is in an electronic world is not so difficult to imagine.
A lot of this surely has to do with the adoption of Word and Word-like word processors as default writing software since the late s. Part of the research of the Digital Publishing Toolkit is to come up with an editorial tool for small publishers. And generates good and well-formed output…. This has created a new taxonomy of publications that scrape content from the internet. Ludovico mentions three methods that are used to produce books from existing online content: 1.
Sometimes these experiments are exhilarating — not as books itself, but rather conceptually. As well as various other non-artistic misuses of the print on demand systems and Amazon to sell real books, which are books as they are bound stacks of paper , but the content is, well, spam? The second subject Alessandro Ludovico puts in the mix is industrial scanning of books — as done by for instance Google Books. What he does not mention, but what I find very interesting, is that industrial scanning has made possible new ways of doing literary theory and literary history too.
The thousands of scanned books — which nobody will ever read — can be used to get some insight on the development of ideas, and of daily life. Human intelligence is needed to obtain these insights and critically evaluate them.
Upload all the knowledge of the world in the cloud, have various algorithms harvesting and analysing the data — and see: new insights and knowledge emerge, eventually making machines more intelligent than us humans. Florian Cramer mentions that, judging from the website-design Google Books might be heading more in the direction of selling or e-books than in pursuing the grand scheme of storing all the knowledge of the world.
Michael Murtaugh introduces a series of presentations which reflect on various electronic reading and publishing practices that have emerged over time. The first one is about using Twitter and Catalan. Elizabeth Castro — computer book author — uses Twitter to interview people about Catalunya and the Catalan language see CatalanTalk. The question is how to go from Storify to epub? As tweets are basically HTML, this should be straightforward enough. She explains the workflow.
First export to XML. InDesign to epub can be a good tool — I am told also by others — if you use InDesign in a very structured way. How she designs in InDesign is strictly structural and systematic. Not all graphic designers I know work this way.
Elizabeth Castro, wrote about pages says Florian Cramer about cleaning up InDesign files for epub. So Florian Cramer asks her about it. She answers that InDesign has become much better in this respect, but also states that InDesign is simply the tool she has used for a long time.
There are now a number of such tools. I am used to WordPress, and in Pressbooks is easy to do the footnotes by hand. In fact technologically this is not so much? But why epub? That is a good question, to which Oliver Wise gives good answers: epubs are self-contained, good for archiving, they enable a good reading experience though better than paper? I wonder , they are cross-device or they are when you know how to use Calibre for conversion. And yes, an important reason is that people buy them.
He recently did a Booksprint on Booksprints. He gave up art after art had brought him to Antarctica. His first book-making platform was based on Twiki. He has also learned that doing Farsi in Regex I did not know what Regex is is extremely hard — touching on the language issue that tends to be forgotten in a predominantly English-focused world.
And learned that doing something the simple way is the best way. Import and export is all file conversion. He states that in our world paper books are weird, as they were digital files first. He has a great metaphor: printed books are like frozen waves. He pleads: one has to get into the digital space for real — design does not relate to a fixed thing a frozen wave — as can be found in Antarctica , but to data which flows and can be reflowed.
Anything else in this world is crazy. Books — as printed things — are evil: they brought us copyright, industrial culture, the myth of the solitary genius. The market conditions for printed books do not exist without these. Why go back to the book in a networked world?
Only at this point the issues begin. Is science not collaborative knowledge production? Sure this is possible in a printed book format too? In the discussion later on, he says that his is a reversed provocation, against the fiction or myth that books are authored by a single author, even those are not made by a single author, they are collaborative efforts.
Florian Cramer chimes in and warns that one should not fight windmills, not fight against a situation that does not exist anymore, or has lost power. Also Marcell Mars reacts from the audience , making a point of the book as a cultural structure, rather than a technological one — though it is also technological.
It is interesting to see the playing-out of these differences — shall we call them ideological? These ideological differences come back in the presentation of John Haltiwanger about tools for knowledge production. He starts from the fundamental principle that knowledge production is too important to be locked in with proprietary software.
His writing environment is a minimal full-text text editor. Like Adam Hyde he uses a picture of a glacier too. John Haltiwanger absolutely loves Markdown, I am told, and co-leads the pandoc workshop the next day. He mentions that many of the apps and tools that people now use unthinkingly do not work without connectivity.
We are not sure bandwidth will stay as cheap as it is now. And then he does not even mention that connectivity means tracking use. The world of epub, he says, is like the world of web design of the middle s. There is a beautiful standard epub2 and epub3 , but very bad implementation and support of it by different reading tools. An extremely simple but crazy example is that the CSS of the Kobo Touch displays the emphasis tag as bold instead of italics. This makes the question how to publish both on paper and electronic, which should be simple, quite problematic.
He also says that the promise that electronic publishing is cheaper than print publication is false. Though sometimes it is cheaper, we will hear. According to Florian Multimarkdown has all the functionality that is needed for book production, and it has a straightforward and simple structure.
It does body text, three hierarchies of headings, emphasis, strong, citation, footnotes, lists, and links. HTML has already too many possibilities says Cramer. The only problem is — I think — that not many people are used to such markup languages. But I might be mistaken. They can be downloaded as PDF and epub at different sites.
She speaks about how she changed her habits and workflow as an editor in the course of the project. It partly mirrors my own struggles with using softwares, tools, and way of collaborations in book projects. Getting out books in various formats is a way of reaching a larger audience. The workflow starts with Word-documents of writers, these are edited by editors, go back and forth.
A final document is sent by the editor to the designer who imports it into InDesign to produce a designed PDF, which can be printed, and made available digitally. Good term. Making the epub of Unlike Us was totally separate — it was the only output format outside this workflow. This particular epub is one of the best I ever saw — looking at how it worked on my Kobo, and inspecting the source code.
So how did the workflow change through producing the epub for Society of the Query? They made Markdown the central document format for keeping the definite texts and archiving. They also made a personal epub-machine coded by Michael Murtaugh that allows you to choose from the available material — including stuff which is not in the original epub, like blogposts, photos, videos associated to the Society of the Query project, and generate a personal epub.
Though the idea of the epub as a self-contained file loses some of its power. I think. As the power of a self-contained file, as a book with covers, also lies in the fact that there are identical copies, that others have read the same book or epub , and can refer to it as the same book, even though the reading experience of that same book might differ quite a bit. They created a digital version of the printed book Common Skin, looking at the visual essays, the footnotes and the extensive indexes.
For the toolkit they made an epub3 generator EPUBster. The question is: could they not learn it? It does not take an intensive week workshop, you learn it in two hours. She took part in the pandoc workshop the next day. It mystifies me that apparently people are willing and able to learn Excel and Word — which I find hard and horrible programs, with way too many and too complex functionalities — but not Markdown, or basic HTML.
Who ever received a perfectly formatted Word document that used styles consequently and in the right way? Editors do usually know their tools, or at least the functions they need. I did not understand pandoc — the converting tool that Florian Cramer had advised me to use.
I did not even understand where my Mac had saved the program when I downloaded it. You need to open the terminal to use it. But at least I knew that there is such a thing as terminal access, and that I can learn again to use it, and it is not extremely difficult. Though it might not be extremely attractive visually , not intuitive. Two other visually oriented projects follow. Their goal was to explore the possibility of rich media with highly interactive content.
On the other hand, there were just as many occurrences of Schadprogramme n in That Malware is used to such an extent is slightly surprising, as IATE , created in , lists Schadprogramm and Schadsoftware as its German terms. Furthermore, programmatuur is a worse option than software, because it lacks a counterpart of hardware and the possibility of forming adjectives with the meaning of softwarematig and hardwarematig, which are needed in 2.
It is notable, however, that the English malware was not used in EUR-Lex until and only became really popular in Perhaps this is an effect of how the Dutch terms are ordered in IATE , whether this was intended as a preferential ordering or not. Unfortunately, this text has not been translated into Swedish, German or Dutch.
It occurred there in a list of different kinds of malware and is accompanied by a partial explanation of the concept boldface added : Current forms of malware can steal data by copying it and sending it to another address; they can manipulate data; they can hinder the operation of computer systems, including those that control critical infrastructures; ransomware can delete, suppress or block access to data; and specially-tailored malware can target specified computer systems.
The term also figures in CELEXIE, which has been translated into all languages concerned and contains a definition boldface added : The most common forms of attack involve the deployment of malware. Malware is software that hijacks a digital device to achieve a criminal objective, for example to steal user credentials or money, or to spread itself to other devices.
Malware includes computer viruses including worms and Trojan horses , ransomeware sic , spyware, adware, scareware and other malicious programmes. For example, ransomware is a particular type of malware which locks access to the computer system that it infects and demands a ransom for the lock to be removed. In other words, ransomware may be tentatively defined as a particular kind of malware that locks access to a computer system and demands a ransom for it to be unlocked.
In translation, the word was translated into Swedish while also keeping the English term as utpressningstrojaner 11 Search results as of Further examples include articles by Trend Micro "ransomware" , Norton Symantec, n. Kaspersky n. Ransomware, a term based on either software or malware, is the preferable term, however, as virus and Trojan have been given more specific definitions in 2.
Likewise, ransom is more generic than crypto-. After all, it is not impossible to imagine ransomware that does not contain any kind of encryption. Linguee12 and Glosbe13 provided no further suggestions Utilising these building blocks, the candidate terms in the table below were constructed and tested Given the terms chosen for spyware section 2.
Terms ending in Swedish words for -virus, - worm or -trojan were not considered, as their definition is not generic enough — the same is true of krypto- as it should be spelled. Obviously, this is not to say that a term such as kryptomask would be incorrect when referring to a worm that encrypts a drive and demands a ransom — it just is not well-suited for the purpose of this section. After all, it would be preferable if the term were also suitable for denoting a piece of software that blackmails a computer user without encryption, for example by means of a denial-of-service attack.
Gisslanprogram has the advantage of performing better in most search queries and of brevity, but utpressningsprogram resembles utpressningstrojan more, which was identified in EUR-Lex. But one single EUR-Lex hit does not a preference make.
Other possibilities were sought By the same logic as in 2. The remaining possibilities were then subjected a first filtering in Google The hyphens were left out with reference to those terms as well. Linguee16 and Glosbe17 were both checked for alternatives, but contained none By the same logic as in Swedish and German, only the generic second components -programma and -software were considered in a first weeding-out via Google, in conjunction with various allomorphs of the generic words identified, as well as another synonym of ransom: losprijs The remaining candidates were then checked on Google Scholar and in the Dutch Computer magazines.
There is no reason to use a hyphen anywhere in either of the Dutch terms. There are, however, many instances of it in EUR-Lex documents 63 hits as of All such documents were looked through in all relevant languages. Deze informatie wordt op de harde schijf opgeslagen en ook vaak verstuurd naar een centrale server Ibid. There is little reason to include spyware as an option, given the computer magazine data and the recommendation by Datatermgruppen.
As Programm is likely a word that more German people know than Software, preference should be given to this option. This also fits in well with the Swedish recommendation in 2. The following searches confirm that spionagesoftware is preferable to spionsoftware See 2. For instance, in the Cybercrime Convention Committee Guidance Note on new forms of Malware Commonly-known forms [of malware] include worms, viruses, and Trojans.
In sorting out the IATE articles for Trojan, it also became necessary to take a quick look at backdoors and trapdoors. A worm propagates copies of itself from one networked machine to another by gaining illicit access to the e-mail or file copying system. The famous Internet Worm of infected key network servers and brought Internet traffic to a standstill. Partly, this variation may derive from the fact that some sources consider worms a subclass of viruses, whereas others treat them as wholly separate concepts.
Vangie Beal, Managing Editor of Webopedia. She then proceeds to explain that a virus attaches itself to a program or file so that it is executed along with it and that it spreads by human action when an infected program or file is shared.
In its introduction, all these phenomena are classified as types of malware, and it is stipulated that two of the most common types are viruses and worms. They are standalone software and do not need human help to propagate. A virus cannot run by itself; it requires that its host program be run to make the virus active.
Worm: A computer program that can run independently, can propagate a complete working version of itself onto other hosts on a network, and may consume computer resources destructively. This latter point helps explain the definitional confusion. Symantec then outlines five subtypes categorised according to the type and part of memory to which the virus attaches itself: file infector viruses, boot sector viruses, master boot viruses, multipartite viruses and macro viruses Symantec, These subtypes will not be given further consideration here, however, for the sake of brevity and since they should not pose any problems in terms of definition or translation once the core definitions and translations of virus have been taken care of.
Having identified the commonalities typically malicious purpose, self-replication and distinguishing features spread by human action or system vulnerabilities, standalone or requiring a hostfile between viruses and worms, definitions can be written. Een trojaans paard kan schade toebrengen aan de computergegevens of de privacy van de gebruiker. In het jargon gebruikt men ook wel het Engelse Trojan horse of kortweg trojaan.
Het is genoemd naar het Paard van Troje waarin Griekse soldaten de stad Troje binnenkwamen om de stad van binnenuit aan te vallen. Een trojaans paard is dus geen zelfstandig programma, zoals een computervirus. Het is ook niet hetzelfde als een worm, want het moet door de gebruiker worden gekopieerd en kopieert niet zichzelf naar andere computers.
However, since the advent of public key cryptography the term trapdoor has acquired a different meaning see trapdoor function , and thus the term "backdoor" is now preferred. In other words, the term trapdoor should be reserved for cryptographic contexts, whereas backdoors are what is included in trojans cf. Elsewhere, trapdoor and backdoor are treated as synonyms e. SANS Institute , but there is no reason not to make the distinction, if anything just to be safe.
The following two articles show that the difference is to some extent also present in IATE. The term also applies to loopholes deliberately programmed into the access control of some computer programs e. Vaak laten programmeurs uit gemakzucht een achterdeurtje open in hun producten; dit wordt dan later door hackers ontdekt en gebruikt. Men kan een achterdeurtje ook opzettelijk aanbrengen door gebruik te maken van Trojaanse paarden.
As cryptographic terms strictly fall outside the scope of this contribution, the definition below is not very refined, but merely serves to delineate the terms backdoor and trapdoor from each other. In such cases, it is strictly speaking not a matter of cybercrime unless a law is broken, e.
As was just explained, however, the trapdoor is not really a concern in this contribution, so the spelling issue may be left for what it is. The spelling of Trojan and Trojan horse is explained in the next section along with the spelling of the terms in the other languages. De gedachte aan de locatie is immers op de achtergrond geraakt, de afleidingen geven een soort aan: parmezaan, parmaham, bearnaise, bordeaux. No similar spelling issues arise in the case of Swedish or German, luckily, as they write geographic names denoting a person in lowercase.
In Dutch, the English term should nevertheless be written in lowercase, just like the native Dutch one. In the Swedish computer magazines on IDG. Backdoors receives 82 hits in the Dutch computer magazines, whereas achterdeuren gets 32, so the same decision was taken as in the case of German There does not seem to be much reason to accept the English term in addition to the German one given these numbers.
Furthermore, since it is a literal translation, anyone who is familiar with the English term should be able to understand to what it refers. The Dutch translation valdeur was found in a Europarl document Schmid, Valdeurfunctie and a number of possible spelling variations of trapdoorfunctie taken together both only received one hit on Google. The phenomenon of keyloggers arose along with personal internet access Google, Examples include: Phase 1 — The obtaining of identity information, for example, through physical theft, through search engines, insider attacks, attacks from outside illegal access to computer systems, Trojans, keyloggers, spyware and other malware or through the use of phishing and or other social engineering techniques.
Unfortunately, this guidance note has not yet been translated into Swedish, German or Dutch. Furthermore, there do not seem to be any hits for keylogger, key logger or keystroke logger in EUR-Lex. We have developed a new approach for implementing a stealthy keylogger: we explore the possibility of leveraging the graphics card as an alternative environment for hosting the operation of a keylogger.
The key idea behind our approach is to monitor the system's keyboard buffer directly from the GPU via DMA, without any hooks or modifications in the kernel's code and data structures besides the page table. The evaluation of our prototype implementation shows that a GPU-based keylogger can effectively record all user keystrokes, store them in the memory space of the GPU, and even analyze the recorded data in-place, with negligible runtime overhead.
Used for technical support and surveillance purposes; can also be integrated into malware and used to gather passwords, user names, and other private information. Keyloggers can store information, which could very well include personal details and passwords that you have typed into your computer, such that it can later be retrieved by third-parties.
The internet security company Emsisoft defines keylogger as: Keyloggers are small programs invisibly installed on a computer that record all keyboard input. An attacker can use this to e. Competitor Kaspersky n. A keylogger may be either hardware- or software-based, and has its uses as a legitimate personal or professional IT monitoring tool. However, keystroke logging can also be used for criminal purposes.
More commonly, keystroke logging is malicious spyware that is used to capture sensitive information, like passwords or financial information, which is then sent to third parties for criminal exploitation. McAfee n. This is usually done with malicious intent to collect information including instant messages, email text, email addresses, passwords, credit card and account numbers, addresses, and other private data F-Secure n.
Some keylogger programs will also forward the stored information to an external server for easier retrieval by the attacker. BullGuard n. Because of their size they can often go undetected for a long time, but they do require physical access to the machine.
These hardware devices have the power to capture hundreds of keystrokes including banking and email username and passwords. Software using a hooking mechanism: a type of logging that uses the Windows function SetWindowsHookEx that monitors all keystrokes and can even capture autocomplete passwords. The spyware will typically come packaged as an executable file that initiates the hook function, plus a DLL file to handle the logging functions. It replaces the core software for interpreting keystrokes.
It can be programmed to be undetectable by taking advantage of the fact that it is executed on boot, before any user-level applications start. However, since it runs at the kernel level, it cannot record autocomplete passwords, as this information is passed in the application layer. The internet security company Panda n. This program could then publish the list, allowing third parties to access the data the information that the user has entered through the keyboard: passwords, document texts, emails, key combinations, etc.
Finally, keylogger may also be defined as spyware targeting keyboard input, as spyware is a hypernym of keylogger see 2. The following Google searches For reasons of elegance and consistency with keylogger, however, the former spelling is nevertheless preferable. Interestingly, it spells key log as two words, but this was disregarded for consistency. Symantec n. Trend Micro n. Nyckel is the Swedish translation of a key that one puts in a lock. A tangent, on the other hand, is the key of a keyboard or a piano.
The words keyloggare, tangentinspelare key recorder and tangenttryckningsloggare key press logger were also spotted among the Google hits. Here are some frequencies for the suggestions gathered above, as well as some forms that could easily by imagined by analogy with the material. On Google Scholar, 23 The percentage for keylogging is based on the total of hits. The 10, keylogging hits were then, however, excluded when calculating the scores of the other options, to get more easily readable numbers.
In IDG. So far, the two prime candidates for preferred terms are tangentbordsloggning and tangentloggning. Tangentbordsloggning is about three times as common as tangentloggning, but tangentloggning has the advantage of being shorter. A quick Google Search reveals that tangentloggningsprogram hits is a lot more common than tangentbordsloggningsprogram 6 hits , which indicates that it is easier to form compounds with the shorter form tangentloggning.
Perhaps taking a look at the frequencies for translations of keylogger will yield some additional input. So, owing to its frequent usage, there is something to be said in favour of accepting it as a Swedish term for the purposes of this study — nevertheless, the Swedish terms are much more transparent and therefore more readily understood by readers who are not already familiar with the concept of a keylogger, and the Swedish alternatives are definitely used often enough not to be branded as obscure purisms.
Notably, the alternative tangentlogg does not score badly at all and its relationship to the variant with tangentbord- is the reverse in this case: tangent- is a lot more common. In the Google Scholar data, the main Swedish options get one point each, but there are not enough hits to say much about the relationship between them.
On IDG. As to what terms should be preferred, it seems proper to exclude forms in -logg from the running, as a log is the result of what a logger does. A keylog is what is sent to the one who installed a keylogger. As a Swedish translation of keylogger, tangentloggare is preferred for the same reasons as tangentloggning, but it may be observed that in practice tangentloggningsprogram keylogging program is substituted quite often.
Finally, an extra row was added for keylog tangentlogg , which is what a keylogger produces. The verbs roots that were used when constructing the alternative translations for keylogger: logga, spela in and registrera all lend themselves semantically to the purpose of translating to log keystrokes. Spela in record certainly sounds the most natural to me as a native speaker, but logga fits well with the terms selected above.
That is of little importance, however, because the verbs are slightly different in meaning: every log is a recording, but not every recording is a log. Nevertheless, they could certainly be used in a text once the topic of keylogging has been introduced as can software logger and hardware logger. Symantec uses the terms Keylogger-Programm n. Additionally, Linguee. From sanmaxi. On database- converter. Andreas Winterer of Un SicherheitsBlog.
Tasturspion and the similar Datenspion are used in an article on the German internet portal T-Online. A forum thread on tomshardware. The auto-translated website familykeylogger. The computer surveillance company ProtectCom n. Finally, the potentially useful combinations Eingaben verfolgen Alonma, , Tastaturmitschnitt lesen Alonma, n. As we are looking for a brief term and most alternatives above seem to involve them, only the former two options will be looked into.
Secondly, it seems that the options with Tastatur- are a lot more popular than those with Tasten-. For that reason, and since it is somewhat more precise other things than keyboards have keys , the options may, for now be narrowed down to Tastaturspeicher, Tastaturspion, Tastaturrekorder the spelling with k is preferred in Duden or Tastaturlogger, unless the translations of keylogging make another option more interesting for reasons of consistency.
Tastaturspeicher seems to carry the meaning of keyboard buffer quite often34, however, which does not exclude it completely as an option, but certainly makes it less preferable. Furthermore, Speicher generally means memory in the world of computers, which forms a potential source of confusion.
Tastaturspion certainly fits well for the purposes of this section; it has the connotation of crime, but it does not seem entirely appropriate for denoting the software when it is used more legitimately or when for another reason it is given a more neutral description. In such cases, Tastaturlogger and Tastaturrekorder seem more fitting. The noun Logger and the verb loggen do not seem to be used a lot in German in general — none of them are included in Duden.
Protokollieren or aufzeichnen would probably be the closest translation for to log, but unfortunately neither Tastaturprotokollierer nor Tastaturaufzeichner fared very well in the search engine measurements. In short, the preferred term is Tastaturrekorder on grounds of its neutrality, but Tastaturspion may substitute where a negative connotation is deemed unproblematic. Software-based and hardware-based keylogger may be translated as softwarebasierter and hardwarebasierter Tastaturrekorder respectively.
Other kinds of keyboard surveillance could plausibly include having a person stand behind the user or recording the keyboard with a camera. Lastly, Tastaturspionage should definitely be listed as a counterpart for Tastaturspion, and Tastaturaufzeichner will be added to the list of keylogger translations because of Tastaturaufzeichnung and the fact that it is used by Symantec their software being widely used.
Finally, possible translations for keylog could not be easily evaluated using search engines, but reasoning about the component parts of the terms can take one quite far. Tastaturaufzeichnung, Tastaturaufnahme and Tastaturmitschnitt all have the disadvantage of being ambiguous; they can also be used as a translation for keylogging. Tastaturrecording may be discarded for the same reason as the first three terms, especially since the Google hits were not examined to see if they ever had the meaning of keylog rather than keylogger.
Tastaturspeicher was discussed above and the same reasoning applies in this case: a keylog could perhaps be produced by a keylogger by reading the keyboard buffer. Log is used quite a lot in German, but its fluctuating gender is problematic. Duden says das Log, but die Log and der Log are also in use.
All three options seem to get more or less equal Google results. Protokoll, finally, means basically the same thing as Log does, but has a fixed neutral gender assigned, making it a better choice for a preferred term.
Sometimes various clarifying compounds are formed such as keyloggerprogramma Symantec, or keyloggingmalware Kaspersky, n. Trendmicro forms an exception in that it uses the translation toetslogger, a literal translation of keylogger This option was, however, discarded on the grounds that apparaat only is suitable to denote hardware-based keyloggers. The Google searches in the table below were carried out on The limited usage of toetslogger by internet security companies certainly speaks to its advantage, but the Google measurements and the equally limited presence of toetsenlogger in Dutch computer magazines show that the compound with the infix -en- is preferable.
This infix is sometimes associated with plurality by native speakers of Dutch Banga, et al. Forming a compound appears difficult, as toetsaanslaglogging is rather lengthy and the meaning of toetsenlogging is rather unclear — neither option seems to be in use according to Google. Arguably, the latter concern applies to toetsenlogger as well, but in that case, the need for a short, practical term is more pressing as it denotes something more concrete.
Finally, hardware-based keylogger and software-based keylogger may be translated as hardwarematige and softwarematige toetsenlogger respectively. These translations are preferable to hardwaregebaseerde and softwaregebaseerde as they are shorter and perform several times better on Google as of Out of those two options, toetsenlogger was chosen as it is in wider use and because it conforms better to the principles of compounding in Dutch.
The translations for keylogging and keylog were then derived from this conclusion and deemed preferable to a number of other options. Finally, hardwarematig and softwarematig were deemed the best translations for software-based and hardware-based. Phishing also occurs numerous times in EUR-Lex Microsoft uses the same three translations in its Terminology Collection n. In summary, the various definitions of phishing in IATE agree that it is a fraudulent technique of acquiring private data online.
The question remains whether this necessarily has to involve sending e-mails and whether the purpose has to be identify theft. Both questions will be answered in the negative. For instance, on PhishTank. Compounds such as phishing e-mail and phishing pop-up window indicate that the term itself is not limited to e-mails. For these reasons, a less restrictive definition was chosen: Definition phishing attempts to fool people into revealing sensitive information by posing as a trusted person or organisation A note will be added stating that phishing is commonly done through messaging services such as e-mails and with legitimate-looking fake websites, and that the purpose may be identify theft or financial gain.
In English there is an intentional spelling error that has become part of the term itself as it distinguishes it from normal fishing where one tries to catch actual fish. In order to identify possible alternative terms, Linguee43 was consulted The same holds true for Glosbe as of Many of the hits for both Datenfischerei and Datenfischen occur in newspaper articles, making them both acceptable candidate terms.
However, it is not uncommon for Datenfischerei to refer to surveillance efforts by government agencies, so for that reason, and for harmonisation with the Dutch terminology in the following sections, only Datenfischen will be listed as a full alternative. It does seem plausible, however, that most Dutch-speaking people know the meaning of the English word fish. In addition, the suffix -ing is identical in Dutch and in English, even though fishing is normally visserij in Dutch.
Consulting Glosbe46 yielded the paraphrase frauduleuze berichten, but other than that no translation suggestions A number of alternatives were constructed inspired by the identified Swedish and German translations search results as of As far as the latter related terms are concerned a number of Google searches were carried out Unfortunately, it is not possible to construct a general term using nep- encompassing everything that can be considered phishing.
Another possibility was come across by accident after this section was written, namely lok-, as in lokmails Tertium, One spots a prize fish and strikes. The message may be made to appear as if it is coming from someone trustworthy inside the company by means of spoofing. To put it generally, spear phishing is simply phishing with a component of research. By carefully selecting a group, individual or number of individuals and gathering information about them, the potential victims can be more credibly lured into handing over their sensitive information.
Margaret Rouse of TechTarget SearchSecurity points to three factors determining the success of a spear phishing attack: 1 the source must appear to be a known and trusted individual, 2 information within the message reinforces the trustworthiness and 3 there must be a logical reason for the information request Rouse, What is spear phishing? Norton Symantec, n. No, it's not a sport, it's a scam and you're the target. Spear phishing is an email that appears to be from an individual or business that you know.
But it isn't. It's from the same criminal hackers who want your credit card and bank account numbers, passwords, and the financial information on your PC. The Swedish governmental organisation Krisberedskapsmyndigheten , p. As OED has not taken an explicit stance on spear - phishing, the IATE spelling was kept, which in addition seemed a lot more common in general when looking through the sources used in this section.
Additionally, Norton, as was noted above, provides the alternative ljusterfiske. Given the conclusions in section 2. Reading through all pages of search results for spearphishing and spear phishing in the German Computer Magazines, finally, yielded the suggestions gezieltes Phishing and the rather lengthy auf das Opfer zugeschnittenes Phishing, which because of its verbosity will only be considered a paraphrase.
Results as of Speerfischen will be listed as well, seeing as it is the most popular all-German option and for the sake of uniformity with the translations of phishing. In general, it is recommended to spell English compounds as one word in Dutch Taalunie, n. No alternative Dutch translations could be identified on Linguee49 or Glosbe50 In addition, two instances of speervissen, Bolt and Meeus , were found as subtitles for paragraphs discussing attacks that were subsequently described as spearphishing.
It would be difficult to argue that these articles feature speervissen as a term, but the occurrences certainly indicate that this is the intuitive literal translation of spear phishing, so for that reason it will be considered a term candidate. The former has the advantage of being shorter, but the latter can be used to form an alternative to spearphisher or spear phisher: doelgerichte phisher.
As was the case for phishing itself, alternatives using -vissen, or -visserij are not common. Finally, in order to determine which adverb would be best suited to extend the paraphrases listed in 2. European Commission, , p.
There are no instances of security fix in EUR-Lex IATE does not contain any entries for security fix, but there is one for the hypernym bug fix. This is translated to German as Fehlerbeseitigung, to Dutch as foutcorrectie, but no translation is available for Swedish. The article, IATE , is from , however, so perhaps the information is outdated. Furthermore, there are no instances of bug fix in EUR-Lex The latter term has, however, been used no less than 39 times in software that has been localised for the German market "security fix", n.
There are no definitions or instances of security patch "security patch", n. Typically, a patch is installed into an existing software program. Patches are often temporary fixes between full releases of a software package. Patches may do any of the following: - Fix a software bug - Install new drivers - Address new security vulnerabilities - Address software stability issues - Upgrade the software Jansen C. A fix or a patch, by the sounds of it, would not be used to denote software changes that add new functionality without addressing any bugs, since it has a base meaning of repairing something.
Updates, on the other hand, simply add new functionality, regardless of whether anything was broken or not, to a piece of software. Upgrade, finally, may denote a major update, as indicated by this quote: An Apple "software upgrade" means a major, standalone version of a software product. Such products are usually something you purchase. Apple, With the modifier security attached, however, it is of little importance whether the second part of the compound denotes repairing.
Users may reasonably expect that the software is always safe. The table also points in the direction that security update should be the preferred out of the remaining three options, but considering the substantial usage of security fix and security patch either of the two could serve just as well. In order to identify an intuitive difference in meaning between security fixes, security patches and security updates, some additional Google searches were carried out: Google The slight difference in the definitional meaning between security patch and security update, lastly, is derived from the base meaning of repairing that, as noted above, is present in patch and fix , whereas update has a base meaning of newness adding new functionality.
Definitions security fix set of code or configuration changes addressing a security issue in a certain piece of software security patch software package applying one or several security fixes to a certain piece of software security update minor release of a certain piece of software improving its security often released as a patch security upgrade major release of a certain piece of software improving its security often released as a standalone installer 2.
They do, however, concede that buggfix is also in use and that programkorrigering may be more suitable in formal situations Ordlista, The latter remark is probably reflective of the fact that the verb fixa is rather informal compared to korrigera or reparera. A difference in practice is that updates generally are free and provided online more or less automatically, whereas upgrades cost money.
It is sent out by the developer and applied by the user. A patch is a small program that searches for, finds and replaces parts of the binary code. This is why, as remarked in the previous section, fan-made patches are more common than fan-made updates. Update is translated as uppdatering "update", n. Upgrade was consistently translated as uppgradering.
Patch noun has been translated as patch-fil En. Verbally, it was translated as upddatera, korrigera and laga patch tool was translated as lagningsverktyg. In order to identify the best term candidates for security fix, the following Google searches were carried out. Google results To access the data, one has to mount the.
However, it is generally better to avoid the concept altogether, since both fix and patch are rather informal in Swedish and given the preference of many developers to use the term update instead of patch. There are no Google hits at all for the former, however, and no computer-related hits for the latter Just as in 2. Microsoft mostly translates security fix as Sicherheitspatch, but Sicherheitsfix is used a number of times as well "security fix", n.
There are no hits for security patch "security patch", n. Security upgrade is translated as Sicherheitsupgrade 21 times, but mostly as Sicherheitsupdate "security upgrade", n. Here too, it is probably the case that the translators use the concepts more precisely, realising that the upgrade in their source text is actually an update. Sometimes, when update is verbal or more deverbal, aktualisieren is used, in a few cases yielding Aktualisierung "security update", n.
In order to obtain German alternatives, some translations for patch, fix, upgrade and upgrade as such were looked through as well. Patch is always kept in the German translations "patch", n. Fix has a glossary entry for itself translated as Fix. There is also one for private fix, which is rendered as privater Fix in German. This is reminiscent of those instances where security fix was translated as security patch.
In this case, however, the definition indicates that Fix or another German word , as is used in English, would actually be a better translation than Patch. It seems that when a changing of machine code is required, the translation is often Patch, whereas when for example a setting needs to be alter, Korrektur, Reparatur or Fehlerbehebung is likely to be used ibid.
In the screenshot, apply this fix is sometimes translated as Diese Korrektur anwenden and sometimes as Diesen Fix anwenden "apply this fix", n. This contrasts with the following fragment, in which a complete download of the Windows Update Database is required, probably along with some machine code changes as well, since a restart of the service is required boldface added : The troubleshooter has detected possible issues that may prevent Windows Update from keeping your system up to date.
The troubleshooter will gather log files and try to resolve the issue which may involve rebuilding the Windows Update Database and restarting the service for Windows Update. In general, many instances of Fix appear to have been changed into Korrektur in newer versions of Windows, indicating, that Microsoft might be phasing out the term altogether in German Ibid. The same thing can be seen in the translations of compability fix. That aktualisieren or its deverbal Aktualisierung is used for upgrade as well as update seems to be a conscious choice.
Update, finally, has two glossary entries. As a noun it should be translated as Update and as a verb as aktualisieren. Fix clearly has a German translation in Korrektur, even though the English word is used sometimes as well. It does not require a lot of imagination to imagine Aktualisierung being used for the more concrete noun as well, even though Microsoft has opted not to.
No all-German alternatives were found for Patch and Upgrade. Among those translations, there are no instances of security fix, security patch or security upgrade, but security update is consistently translated as Sicherheitsupdate 21 times. Fix mostly occurs as verb, except in one instance where Could not be fixed, which was translated as Die Reparatur war erfolglos.
Patch-file is translated as Patch-Datei, patch update as Reparatur-Update and the verb patch is rendered as anpassen or reparieren in a couple of cases. Update is translated as aktualisieren, Update and Aktualisierung.
A clear case where Aktualisierung denotes something more concrete is Check for updates, which was translated as Aktualisierungen suchen. The same holds true for Softwareaktualisierungen as a translation of software updates. Upgrade, lastly, is translated in the same way as in the Microsoft translations: as Upgrade, aktualisieren or Aktualisierung.
In order to find alternative translations for Patch and Upgrade and to find and compare some German definitions to the ones formulated above, a number of other sources were dug up with Google. Wolfgang Bergt, a computer science teacher in Rostock63, maintains an extensive glossary of computer terms on his personal website. In it, he translates Update as Aktualisierung. In comparing Update to Upgrade, he writes that updates are often free of charge, whereas upgrades often cost money.
He further explains the contemporary difference between the terms as follows, indeed implying a difference between a minor and a major version n. The upgrading of software is there translated with aktualisieren, whereas the upgrading of hardware is translated as nachreusten sic or aufreusten sic Nye, n. For this reason, Sicherheitsfix has been omitted from the table above. However, it is worth noting that German translators often adhere more closely to the definition above, whereas English writers often use fix in reference to the downloaded software package instead of to its contents.
Sicherheitsaktualisierung is likewise a well-corroborated German option for the more common Sicherheitsupdate. It fits perfectly with the very frequently used verb aktualisieren and the often- used deverbal Aktualisierung, and it is not hard to find legit instances of it on Google. Korrekturprogramm is not very common, but despite the wide dissemination of the English loan Patch, it should yield no problems of comprehension and should also have a nice ring to German speakers.
Sicherheitskorrekturprogramm also fits very nicely conceptually with the preferred term Sicherheitskorrektur. However, several sources indicated a certain resistance to using it in regards to software. It is therefore not advisable to use it to refer to updates as upgrades in German when it is not warranted, even though one can often get away with it in English.
As a starting point, the glossary entries and localisation fragments were inspected in the Microsoft Language terminology collection. Security fix has no glossary entries in Dutch but is translated as beveiligingspatch or beveiligingsfix in localised fragments "security fix", n.
There are no translations for security patch "security patch", n. Security update is not covered by any glossary entries either, but it is consistently translated in Dutch as beveiligingsupdate "security update", n. Security upgrade, finally, is likewise not covered by any glossary articles, but is translated into Dutch as beveiligingsupgrade or using the deverbal constructions bijwerken van beveiliging and beveiliging bijwerken "security upgrade", n.
The arguments put forth in 2. As the security fixes in question are distributed as a patch, translators may choose to use the word beveiligingspatch without changing the meaning of the text in any meaningful way. It is furthermore quite clear that security is to be translated into Dutch as beveiliging and it is noted that bijwerken is a word that is used in the context of distributing fixes.
Veiligheid, which might have been another possibility, is used for translating safety "veiligheid", n. To see if any alternatives to the English loans could be found for the second part of the compounds, fix, patch, update and upgrade as such were looked up in Microsoft Terminology Collection as well. In the localised fragments, oplossing and fix are used often, as well as the verbs herstellen, verbeteren, repareren, corrigeren and verhelpen "fix", n.
Patch is generally translated as patch, but the verbs herstellen, aanpassen and bijwerken are used as well. The string Failed to correctly patch  file: CRC error has been translated in many different ways, using all the verbs mentioned, in different programs and editions boldface added Microsoft, n. The first fragments indeed use only these two options "update", n. Upgrade, finally, is translated in the Dutch glossary as upgrade, but early upgrade is translated as vroegtijdige update and video upgrade as uitbreiding met video.
Upgrade with, meaning an addition of something that was not there before rather than a major improvement of what was already there, is uitbreiden met in Dutch. In the localised fragments, upgrade and bijwerken or bijwerking are used "upgrade", n. Apple uses similar translations. Fix is translated with the verbs herstellen, verhelpen and oplossen.
Patch with patch or bijwerken, update with update or bijwerken and upgrade with upgrade or bijwerken.
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